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Jun 17, 2022Open    AccessArticle

Somite and Brain Nociceptive Coupling in Evolution of Nociceptive-Sympathetic Coupling for Pain Sensations by NBA

Zi-Jian Cai
In May 2016, it was proposed by the US athletes of the National Basketball Association (NBA) on television that the nociceptive-sympathetic coupling be required for pain sensations. Later, it was demonstrated that, via the activation of sympathetic outputs directly by the nociceptive neurons in laminae I and V of the dorsal spinal horn as well as those in periaqueductal grey (PAG) of brain, it was completed the nociceptive-sympathetic coupling in vertebrates. In this article, for the evolutionar...
Open Access Library J.   Vol.9, 2022
Doi:10.4236/oalib.1108867


Aug 25, 2021Open    AccessArticle

Uncharted Territory—Rehabilitation Potential in a Prolonged COVID-19 ICU Stay Complicated by PRES

Samuel Moody, Vinay Parambil, Fayez Morcos
The long-term complications of COVID-19 and its management, and rehabilitation potential post-recovery remain poorly understood. Here we describe the case of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome and subsequent neuro-rehabilitation outcome of a patient following an extended ICU stay with COVID-19 infection (and complications). Rehabilitation potential and mirroring research are discussed.
Open Access Library J.   Vol.8, 2021
Doi:10.4236/oalib.1107627


Jul 01, 2021Open    AccessArticle

The Dopaminergic and Acetylcholinergic Supplements to Freudian Structural Theory of Psychoanalysis

Zi-Jian Cai
For the Freudian topographic theory of psychoanalysis, it has recently been supplemented the reticular noradrenergic (NA), serotonergic (5-HT) and acetylcholinergic (ACh) systems to demonstrate the differential regulation of unconscious/preconscious/conscious in waking and sleep, applicable to depression and anxiety. For the Freudian structural theory of id/ego/super-ego, it is keen to depict the personal social psychology with selfishness, applicable to schizophrenia. Herein, it is analogously ...
Open Access Library J.   Vol.8, 2021
Doi:10.4236/oalib.1107603


May 11, 2021Open    AccessArticle

Another Train Paradox: May the Myelin Be with You!

Bernard Delalande, Hirohisa Tamagawa, Vladimir Matveev
For more than 70 years, biologists and biophysicists have been trying to unravel the mystery surrounding the saltatory conduction of so-called myelinated neurons. This conduction is indeed very different and faster than for fibres “without” myelin. Many theories have been developed. Albert Einstein used the metaphor of the train to explain the theory of relativity. It is also possible to use a similar metaphor to better understand this transient functioning of the neuron: the transmission of the...
Open Access Library J.   Vol.8, 2021
Doi:10.4236/oalib.1107379


Dec 25, 2020Open    AccessArticle

From Nernst to Bernstein and Beyond

Bernard Delalande, Hirohisa Tamagawa, Vladimir Matveev
Man has always been interested in animal electricity, which seems to be measured in every living cell. He has been fascinated by trying to elucidate the mechanisms by which this potential is created and maintained. Biology is the science that seeks to explain this mystery. Biology is based on basic sciences such as physics or chemistry. The latter, in turn, make systematic use of mathematics to measure, evaluate and predict certain phenomena and to develop “laws” and models that are as general a...
Open Access Library J.   Vol.7, 2020
Doi:10.4236/oalib.1107047


Aug 14, 2020Open    AccessArticle

Achieving Functional Independence of Children with Cerebral Palsy at the Mainstream School: An Overview

Md Mahmudul Hasan, Tamjidul Islam
The functional independence of children with cerebral palsy at the mainstream school involves both academic and non-academic activities within the school environment. In order to perform these activities without anyone’s support, proficiency such as literacy, cognition, language, social and physical skills is required to achieve at the individual level and the surrounding environment should be compatible according to the student with cerebral palsy needs. An inclusive educational setting in the ...
Open Access Library J.   Vol.7, 2020
Doi:10.4236/oalib.1106597


Oct 08, 2019Open    AccessArticle

The Neural Pathways for the Hypothetic Nociceptive-Sympathetic Coupling of NBA for Pain Sensation

Zi-Jian Cai
In May 2016, it was suggested by the US athletes playing games of National Basketball Association (NBA) in television that the pain sensation might result from the post-sensory nociceptive-sympathetic coupling. In this re-view, it is attempted to newly delineate the underlying neural pathways for this post-sensory nociceptive-sympathetic coupling. Based on the con-temporary feedback neural circuits of pain transmission in spinal c
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Open Access Library J.   Vol.6, 2019
Doi:10.4236/oalib.1105780


Jun 28, 2019Open    AccessArticle

Hypothesis on Remote Memory Forming from Heterosynaptic LTD-Mediated Neuronal Degeneration

Zi-Jian Cai
In this article, it is hypothesized a new mechanism for the formation of stable remote memory in brain comprising the important memory acquired during childhood and the common words in language. It has been demonstrated that the memory forms concurrently at both homosynaptic long term potentiation (LTP) and heterosynaptic long term depression (LTD). It is pointed out that the repeated LTD may result in neuronal degeneration as evi
...
Open Access Library J.   Vol.6, 2019
Doi:10.4236/oalib.1105442


Jan 16, 2019Open    AccessArticle

Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor—Major Depressive Disorder and Suicide

Roberto Galea, David Cassar
Objectives: The aims and objectives of this systematic review are to inves-tigate the different theories underlining major depression and suicide while exploring the correlation between BDNF, major depression and suicide. Method: Literature was researched through the University of Malta research platform and statistical reports published by the Maltese National Statistics Office, Eurostat and World Health Org
...
Open Access Library J.   Vol.6, 2019
Doi:10.4236/oalib.1105106


Aug 09, 2018Open    AccessArticle

The Leap of Mind of Linguistic Humans over Animals

Zi-Jian Cai
Recently, it was suggested by Cai a new semantic/syntactic/episodic model of language, encompassing the sentential meanings to the neural linguistic components, and making it possible to install the whole linguistic functions into robots through the three semantic/syntactic/episodic components. In this article, it is considered some improvements of language brought to the brain and mind of humans over animals, and accordingly some
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Open Access Library J.   Vol.5, 2018
Doi:10.4236/oalib.1104771


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