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Dec 25, 2020Open    AccessArticle

From Nernst to Bernstein and Beyond

Bernard Delalande, Hirohisa Tamagawa, Vladimir Matveev
Man has always been interested in animal electricity, which seems to be measured in every living cell. He has been fascinated by trying to elucidate the mechanisms by which this potential is created and maintained. Biology is the science that seeks to explain this mystery. Biology is based on basic sciences such as physics or chemistry. The latter, in turn, make systematic use of mathematics to measure, evaluate and predict certain phenomena and to develop “laws” and models that are as general a...
Open Access Library J. Vol.7, 2020
Doi:10.4236/oalib.1107047


Aug 14, 2020Open    AccessArticle

Achieving Functional Independence of Children with Cerebral Palsy at the Mainstream School: An Overview

Md Mahmudul Hasan, Tamjidul Islam
The functional independence of children with cerebral palsy at the mainstream school involves both academic and non-academic activities within the school environment. In order to perform these activities without anyone’s support, proficiency such as literacy, cognition, language, social and physical skills is required to achieve at the individual level and the surrounding environment should be compatible according to the student with cerebral palsy needs. An inclusive educational setting in the ...
Open Access Library J. Vol.7, 2020
Doi:10.4236/oalib.1106597


Oct 08, 2019Open    AccessArticle

The Neural Pathways for the Hypothetic Nociceptive-Sympathetic Coupling of NBA for Pain Sensation

Zi-Jian Cai
In May 2016, it was suggested by the US athletes playing games of National Basketball Association (NBA) in television that the pain sensation might result from the post-sensory nociceptive-sympathetic coupling. In this re-view, it is attempted to newly delineate the underlying neural pathways for this post-sensory nociceptive-sympathetic coupling. Based on the con-temporary feedback neural circuits of pain transmission in spinal c
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Open Access Library J. Vol.6, 2019
Doi:10.4236/oalib.1105780


Jun 28, 2019Open    AccessArticle

Hypothesis on Remote Memory Forming from Heterosynaptic LTD-Mediated Neuronal Degeneration

Zi-Jian Cai
In this article, it is hypothesized a new mechanism for the formation of stable remote memory in brain comprising the important memory acquired during childhood and the common words in language. It has been demonstrated that the memory forms concurrently at both homosynaptic long term potentiation (LTP) and heterosynaptic long term depression (LTD). It is pointed out that the repeated LTD may result in neuronal degeneration as evi
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Open Access Library J. Vol.6, 2019
Doi:10.4236/oalib.1105442


Jan 16, 2019Open    AccessArticle

Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor—Major Depressive Disorder and Suicide

Roberto Galea, David Cassar
Objectives: The aims and objectives of this systematic review are to inves-tigate the different theories underlining major depression and suicide while exploring the correlation between BDNF, major depression and suicide. Method: Literature was researched through the University of Malta research platform and statistical reports published by the Maltese National Statistics Office, Eurostat and World Health Org
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Open Access Library J. Vol.6, 2019
Doi:10.4236/oalib.1105106


Aug 09, 2018Open    AccessArticle

The Leap of Mind of Linguistic Humans over Animals

Zi-Jian Cai
Recently, it was suggested by Cai a new semantic/syntactic/episodic model of language, encompassing the sentential meanings to the neural linguistic components, and making it possible to install the whole linguistic functions into robots through the three semantic/syntactic/episodic components. In this article, it is considered some improvements of language brought to the brain and mind of humans over animals, and accordingly some
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Open Access Library J. Vol.5, 2018
Doi:10.4236/oalib.1104771


Jun 06, 2018Open    AccessArticle

One Neglected Yawning Function like Slow Wave Sleep: The Hypothetic Neurovascular Regulation from Mouth to Eye Driven by Expiration

Zi-Jian Cai
In this article, it is considered that the mechanism of yawning function is cor-relative to sleep. It was revealed from the electrophysiological studies that the slow wave sleep (SWS) was characterized as decrease in excitation from inspir-atory motoneurons more than from expiration, manifesting the expiratory activity dominating in SWS. To analogize yawning to SWS, herein it is only considered the expirat
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Open Access Library J. Vol.5, 2018
Doi:10.4236/oalib.1104649


Mar 26, 2018Open    AccessArticle

The Peripheral Hypotheses of Hypothalamic Aging

Zi-Jian Cai
It is well known that the hypothalamic changes in control of hormones determine the chronological sequence of aging in mammals. For decades, it has been demonstrated in humans that the hypothalamic nuclei manifest heterogeneity in degeneration during aging, with the neuron number decreasing in both the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and the preoptic sexually dimorphic nucleus (SDN-POA) in the process of senescence, while the neuron
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Open Access Library J. Vol.5, 2018
Doi:10.4236/oalib.1104445


Aug 07, 2017Open    AccessArticle

Three Types of Episodic Associations for the Semantic/Syntactic/Episodic Model of Language Prospective in Applications to the Statistical Translation

Zi-Jian Cai
Recently, it was proposed by Cai a new semantic/ syntactic/ episodic model of language encompassing the sentential meanings, while deriving three corresponding principles from it for machine translation, respectively as first to establish the dictionary of words/phrases, second to translate the grammar, and third to determine the meanings of some words/phrases of multiple meanings by statistic
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Open Access Library J. Vol.4, 2017
Doi:10.4236/oalib.1103830


Jul 12, 2017Open    AccessArticle

The Cholinergic-Regulated Thalamocortical Imagining as Mind Differentiated in Two Phases of Sleep: A View from the Guangdong People

Zi-Jian Cai
Recently, many achievements on neural sciences have been made by the people in television, such as the adipose cause of male hypothalamic aging, and so on. In this article, it is reported that, on June 17 this year in evening in television, the people in Guangdong attending the Opening Ceremony of BRICS Games there suggested that the cholinergic-regulated thalamocortical activation would result in the cortical imagin
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Open Access Library J. Vol.4, 2017
Doi:10.4236/oalib.1103748


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