Oct 30, 2023Open Access
Dogs have a profound history of companionship with humans, evolving from utilitarian tools to cherished sentient beings deserving empathy and consideration. This study explores the transformation of society's perception of dogs from historical, scientific, and philosophical viewpoints. Objectives: This study sought to achieve three main objectives: 1) explore historical and cultural perspectives on dog sentience, 2) analyse scientific evidence supporting the concept of dog sentience, and 3) inve...
Jun 17, 2022Open Access
In May 2016, it was proposed by the US athletes of the National Basketball Association (NBA) on television that the nociceptive-sympathetic coupling be required for pain sensations. Later, it was demonstrated that, via the activation of sympathetic outputs directly by the nociceptive neurons in laminae I and V of the dorsal spinal horn as well as those in periaqueductal grey (PAG) of brain, it was completed the nociceptive-sympathetic coupling in vertebrates. In this article, for the evolutionar...
Aug 25, 2021Open Access
The long-term complications of COVID-19 and its management, and rehabilitation potential post-recovery remain poorly understood. Here we describe the case of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome and subsequent neuro-rehabilitation outcome of a patient following an extended ICU stay with COVID-19 infection (and complications). Rehabilitation potential and mirroring research are discussed.
Jul 01, 2021Open Access
For the Freudian topographic theory of psychoanalysis, it has recently been supplemented the reticular noradrenergic (NA), serotonergic (5-HT) and acetylcholinergic (ACh) systems to demonstrate the differential regulation of unconscious/preconscious/conscious in waking and sleep, applicable to depression and anxiety. For the Freudian structural theory of id/ego/super-ego, it is keen to depict the personal social psychology with selfishness, applicable to schizophrenia. Herein, it is analogously ...
May 11, 2021Open Access
For more than 70 years, biologists and biophysicists have been trying to unravel the mystery surrounding the saltatory conduction of so-called myelinated neurons. This conduction is indeed very different and faster than for fibres “without” myelin. Many theories have been developed. Albert Einstein used the metaphor of the train to explain the theory of relativity. It is also possible to use a similar metaphor to better understand this transient functioning of the neuron: the transmission of the...
Dec 25, 2020Open Access
Man has always been interested in animal electricity, which seems to be measured in every living cell. He has been fascinated by trying to elucidate the mechanisms by which this potential is created and maintained. Biology is the science that seeks to explain this mystery. Biology is based on basic sciences such as physics or chemistry. The latter, in turn, make systematic use of mathematics to measure, evaluate and predict certain phenomena and to develop “laws” and models that are as general a...
Aug 14, 2020Open Access
The functional independence of children with cerebral palsy at the mainstream school involves both academic and non-academic activities within the school environment. In order to perform these activities without anyone’s support, proficiency such as literacy, cognition, language, social and physical skills is required to achieve at the individual level and the surrounding environment should be compatible according to the student with cerebral palsy needs. An inclusive educational setting in the ...
Oct 08, 2019Open Access
In May 2016, it was suggested by the US athletes playing games of National Basketball Association (NBA) in television that the pain sensation might result from the post-sensory nociceptive-sympathetic coupling. In this re-view, it is attempted to newly delineate the underlying neural pathways for this post-sensory nociceptive-sympathetic coupling. Based on the con-temporary feedback neural circuits of pain transmission in spinal c
Jun 28, 2019Open Access
In this article, it is hypothesized a new mechanism for the formation of stable remote memory in brain comprising the important memory acquired during childhood and the common words in language. It has been demonstrated that the memory forms concurrently at both homosynaptic long term potentiation (LTP) and heterosynaptic long term depression (LTD). It is pointed out that the repeated LTD may result in neuronal degeneration as evi
Jan 16, 2019Open Access
Objectives: The aims and objectives of this systematic review are to inves-tigate the different theories underlining major depression and suicide while exploring the correlation between BDNF, major depression and suicide. Method: Literature was researched through the University of Malta research platform and statistical reports published by the Maltese National Statistics Office, Eurostat and World Health Org