All Title Author
Keywords Abstract

Publish in OALib Journal
ISSN: 2333-9721
APC: Only $99

ViewsDownloads

The Dopaminergic and Acetylcholinergic Supplements to Freudian Structural Theory of Psychoanalysis

DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1107603, PP. 1-9

Subject Areas: Psychiatry & Psychology, Psychology, Neurology, Neuroscience

Keywords: Psychoanalysis, Selfish Behavior, Schizophrenia, Dopamine, Acetylcholine, Dementia

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib

Abstract

For the Freudian topographic theory of psychoanalysis, it has recently been supplemented the reticular noradrenergic (NA), serotonergic (5-HT) and acetylcholinergic (ACh) systems to demonstrate the differential regulation of unconscious/preconscious/conscious in waking and sleep, applicable to depression and anxiety. For the Freudian structural theory of id/ego/super-ego, it is keen to depict the personal social psychology with selfishness, applicable to schizophrenia. Herein, it is analogously added the neglected reticular dopaminergic (DA) and ACh systems to regulate the id, ego, and super-ego, corresponding to the bodily instincts including motivation, selfish behaviors including skills, and social knowledge including law, respectively. For DA, predominantly it is selective on super-ego, excitatory to id and beneficial to ego; while for ACh, predominantly it is excitatory to super-ego, depressive to id, and restrictive to ego. It is the hyperactivation of DA and downregulation of ACh that results in schizophrenia and dementia, respectively. It is accordingly reconciled the structural theory of psychoanalysis with the present pathological and pharmacological achievements.

Cite this paper

Cai, Z. (2021). The Dopaminergic and Acetylcholinergic Supplements to Freudian Structural Theory of Psychoanalysis. Open Access Library Journal, 8, e7603. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1107603.

References

[1]  Psychoanalysis (2021) Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/psychoanalysis
[2]  Bergmann, M.S. (2008) The Mind: Psychoanalytic Understanding Then and Now. Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 77, 139-166. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2167-4086.2008.tb00337.x
[3]  Cai, Z.-J. (2016) Progressions of Sleep, Memory and Depression Applicable to Psychoanalysis: A Review. Current Psychiatry Reviews, 12, 240-245. https://doi.org/10.2174/1573400512666160610083505
[4]  Cai, Z.-J. (2018) Evolution of Psychoanalytic Interactions and Conflicts in Vertebrates. Sleep and Hypnosis, 20, 1-7. https://doi.org/10.5350/Sleep.Hypn.2016.18.0128
[5]  Hobson, J.A. (1999) The New Neuropsychology of Sleep: Implications for Psychoanalysis. Neuropsychoanalysis, 1, 157-183. https://doi.org/10.1080/15294145.1999.10773258
[6]  Salone, A., Di Giacinto, A., Lai, C., De Berardis, D., Iasevoli, F., Fornaro, M., De Risio, L., Santacroce, R., Martinotti, G. and Giannantonio, M.D. (2016) The Interface between Neuroscience and Neuro-Psychoanalysis: Focus on Brain Connectivity. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 10, Article No. 20. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2016.00020
[7]  Johnson, B. and Flores Mosri, D. (2016) The Neuropsychoanalytic Approach: Using Neuroscience as the Basic Science of Psychoanalysis. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, Article No. 1459. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01459
[8]  Rizzolatti, G., Semi, A.A. and Fabbri-Destro, M. (2014) Linking Psychoanalysis with Neuroscience: The Concept of Ego. Neuropsychologia, 55, 143-148. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2013.10.003
[9]  Meissner, W.W. (2009) The Question of Drive vs. Motive in Psychoanalysis: A Modest Proposal. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 57, 807-845. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0003065109342572
[10]  Chenu, A. and Tassin, J.-P. (2014) Pleasure: Neurobiological Conception and Freudian Conception. L’Encéphale, 40, 100-107. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.encep.2013.06.003
[11]  Cai, Z.-J. (1991) The Functions of Sleep: Further Analysis. Physiology & Behavior, 50, 53-60. https://doi.org/10.1016/0031-9384(91)90497-C
[12]  Cai, Z.-J. (1995) An Integrative Analysis to Sleep Functions. Behavioural Brain Research, 69, 187-194. https://doi.org/10.1016/0166-4328(95)00005-E
[13]  Volkow, N.D., Wise, R.A. and Baler, R. (2017) The Dopamine Motive System: Implications for Drug and Food Addiction. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 18, 741-752. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrn.2017.130
[14]  Ikemoto, S., Yang, C. and Tan, A. (2015) Basal Ganglia Circuit Loops, Dopamine and Motivation: A Review and Enquiry. Behavioural Brain Research, 290, 17-31. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2015.04.018
[15]  Kesby, J.P., Eyles, D.W., McGrath, J.J. and Scott, J.G. (2018) Dopamine, Psychosis and Schizophrenia: The Widening Gap between Basic and Clinical Neuroscience. Translational Psychiatry, 8, Article No. 30. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41398-017-0071-9
[16]  Weinstein, J.J., Chohan, M.O., Slifstein, M., Kegeles, L.S., Moore, H. and Abi-Dargham, A. (2017) Pathway-Specific Dopamine Abnormalities in Schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry, 81, 31-42. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2016.03.2104
[17]  Shohamy, D., Myers, C.E., Kalanithi, J. and Gluck, M.A. (2008) Basal Ganglia and Dopamine Contributions to Probabilistic Category Learning. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 32, 219-236. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2007.07.008
[18]  Foerde, K. and Shohamy, D. (2011) The Role of the Basal Ganglia in Learning and Memory: Insight from Parkinson’s Disease. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 96, 624-636. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nlm.2011.08.006
[19]  Bahmani, Z., Clark, K., Merrikhi, Y., Mueller, A., Pettine, W., Vanegas, M.I., Moore, T. and Noudoost, B. (2019) Prefrontal Contributions to Attention and Working Memory. Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences, 41, 129-153. https://doi.org/10.1007/7854_2018_74
[20]  Genro, J.P., Kieling, C., Rohde, L.A. and Hutz, M.H. (2010) Attention-Deficit or Hyperactivity Disorder and the Dopaminergic Hypotheses. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics, 10, 587-601. https://doi.org/10.1586/ern.10.17
[21]  Dilsaver, S.C. (1986) Cholinergic Mechanisms in Depression. Brain Research Reviews, 11, 285-316. https://doi.org/10.1016/0165-0173(86)90016-0
[22]  Fisahn, A., Pike, F.G., Buhl, E.H. and Paulsen, O. (1998) Cholinergic Induction of Network Oscillations at 40 Hz in the Hippocampus in Vitro. Nature, 394, 186-189. https://doi.org/10.1038/28179
[23]  Mishkin, M. and Appenzeller, T. (1987) The Anatomy of Memory. Scientific American, 256, 80-89. https://doi.org/10.1038/scientificamerican0687-80
[24]  Tani, M., Akashi, N., Hori, K., Konishi, K., Kitajima, Y., Tomioka, H., Inamoto, A., Hirata, A., Tomita, A., Koganemaru, T., Takahashi, A. and Hachisu, M. (2015) Anticholinergic Activity and Schizophrenia. Neurodegenerative Diseases, 15, 168-174. https://doi.org/10.1159/000381523
[25]  Cai, Z.-J. (2017) The Neurobiological Models of Language: An Updated Review. Psychology & Neuroscience, 10, 297-306. https://doi.apa.org/doi/10.1037/pne0000101
[26]  Lewis, A.G. and Bastiaansen, M. (2015) A Predictive Coding Framework for Rapid Neural Dynamics during Sentence-Level Language Comprehension. Cortex, 68, 155-168. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2015.02.014
[27]  Cai, Z.-J. (2018) The Limbic-Reticular Coupling Theory of Memory Processing in the Brain and Its Greater Compatibility over Other Theories. Dementia & Neuropsychologia, 12, 105-113. https://doi.org/10.1590/1980-57642018dn12-020002
[28]  Newman, E.L., Gillet, S.N., Climer, J.R. and Hasselmo, M.E. (2013) Cholinergic Blockade Reduces Theta-Gamma Phase Amplitude Coupling and Speed Modulation of Theta Frequency Consistent with Behavioral Effects on Encoding. Journal of Neuroscience, 33, 19635-19646. https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2586-13.2013
[29]  Burke, J.F., Sharan, A.D., Sperling, M.R., Ramayya, A.G., Evans, J.J., Healey, M.K., Beck, E.N., Davis, K.A., Lucas II, T.H. and Kahana, M.J. (2014) Theta and High Frequency Activity Mark Spontaneous Recall of Episodic Memories. Journal of Neuroscience, 34, 11355-11365. https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2654-13.2014
[30]  Cape, E.G., Manns, I.D., Alonso, A., Beaudet, A. and Jones, B.E. (2000) Neurotensin-Induced Bursting of Cholinergic Basal Forebrain Neurons Promotes Gamma and Theta Cortical Activity Together with Waking and Paradoxical Sleep. The Journal of Neuroscience, 20, 8452-8461. https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.20-22-08452.2000
[31]  Mena-Segovia, J., Sims, H.M., Magill, P.J. and Bolam, J.P. (2008) Cholinergic Brainstem Neurons Modulate Cortical Gamma Activity during Slow Oscillations. The Journal of Physiology, 586, 2947-2960. https://doi.org/10.1113/jphysiol.2008.153874
[32]  Hampel, H., Mesulam, M.M., Cuello, A.C., Farlow, M.R., Giacobini, E., Grossberg, G.T., Khachaturian, A.S., Vergallo, A., Cavedo, E., Snyder, P.J. and Khachaturian, Z.S. (2018) The Cholinergic System in the Pathophysiology and Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease. Brain, 141, 1917-1933. https://doi.org/10.1093/brain/awy132

Full-Text


comments powered by Disqus

Contact Us

service@oalib.com

QQ:3279437679

WhatsApp +8615387084133

WeChat 1538708413