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Somite and Brain Nociceptive Coupling in Evolution of Nociceptive-Sympathetic Coupling for Pain Sensations by NBA

DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1108867, PP. 1-10

Subject Areas: Neuroscience, Anaesthesiology & Pain Management, Evolutionary Studies, Anatomy & Physiology

Keywords: Pain, Autonomic Regulation, Somite Nociceptive Coupling, Brain Nociceptive Coupling, Drosophila, Evolution

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Abstract

In May 2016, it was proposed by the US athletes of the National Basketball Association (NBA) on television that the nociceptive-sympathetic coupling be required for pain sensations. Later, it was demonstrated that, via the activation of sympathetic outputs directly by the nociceptive neurons in laminae I and V of the dorsal spinal horn as well as those in periaqueductal grey (PAG) of brain, it was completed the nociceptive-sympathetic coupling in vertebrates. In this article, for the evolutionary variations in both brain complexity and autonomic regulation in various animals, it is transformed this nociceptive-sympathetic coupling into more general forms for the evolutionary perspectives. Herein, it is classified the nociceptive-sympathetic coupling for pain sensations from the spinal cord as the somite nociceptive coupling, and the nociceptive-sympathetic coupling from PAG as the brain nociceptive coupling. Because of the wide presence of nociception in almost all vertebrates and invertebrates, such division of somite and brain nociceptive coupling makes it possible to demonstrate the presence of individual couplings in various animals including the primitive amphioxus, Drosophila and so on. In reverse, via evolution, the well-evidenced presence of somite nociceptive coupling in Drosophila supports the widely neglected nociceptive-sympathetic coupling for pain sensations at the spinal cord in vertebrates.

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Cai, Z. (2022). Somite and Brain Nociceptive Coupling in Evolution of Nociceptive-Sympathetic Coupling for Pain Sensations by NBA. Open Access Library Journal, 9, e8867. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1108867.

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