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Dec 06, 2021Open    AccessArticle

The Influence of Inorganic Salts on the Phase Diagram and Separating Ability of Aqueous Biphasic System: Peg/Sodium Citrate-Water

Shahbazova M. Gunel, Masimov A. Eldar
The purpose of the proposed research is to ensure that the value of the distinction is adjusted to each application by using various supplements to separate and clean up biological objects. The work presents the results of studies of the phase diagram of the biphasic system composed of polyethylene glycol (PEG)/sodium citrate-water and the effect of inorganic salts (sodium sulfate, sodium carbonate, sodium nitrate, potassium sulfate, potassium chloride, potassium iodide, potassium bromide) on th...
Open Access Library J.   Vol.8, 2021
Doi:10.4236/oalib.1108105


Feb 20, 2017Open    AccessArticle

Comparative Study between Physical Properties of Virgin Oil and Re-Refining Oil

Bestoon M. Faqi-Ahmed, Karzan A. Omar
The lubricating oils are essential for operating engine with high efficiency. Therefore, the physical properties of oil such as flash point, pour point, kinematic viscosity, specific gravity and the American Petroleum Institute are necessary to be studied to indicate good quality of the lubricating oil. In this study, we compare the physical properties of two virgin oils with re-refining oil.
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Open Access Library J.   Vol.4, 2017
Doi:10.4236/oalib.1103393


Sep 13, 2016Open    AccessArticle

Predicting the Enthalpy of Vaporization and Calculating the Entropy of Vaporization of 87 Octane Gasoline Using Vapor Pressure

Shawn M. Abernathy, Kelly R. Brown
The vapor pressure (VP) of 87 grade gasoline was measured using an enhanced VP acquisition system over a temperature range of approximately 19.0℃ (292.2 K) and 69.0℃ (342.2 K). The empirical data were used to predict the thermodynamic entities the enthalpy of vaporization (ΔHvap) and the entropy of vaporization (ΔS
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Open Access Library J.   Vol.3, 2016
Doi:10.4236/oalib.1102954


Mar 29, 2016Open    AccessArticle

Percolation Transitions of the Ideal Gas and Supercritical Mesophase

Leslie V. Woodcock
High-temperature and pressure boundaries of the liquid and gaseous states have not been defined thermodynamically. Standard liquid-state physics texts use either critical isotherms or isobars as ad hoc boundaries in phase diagrams. Here we report that percolation transition loci can define liquid and gas states, extending from super-critical temperatures or pressures to “ideal gas” states. Using computational methodology described previously we present results for the thermodynamic...
Open Access Library J.   Vol.3, 2016
Doi:10.4236/oalib.1102499


Sep 28, 2015Open    AccessArticle

Using the Vapor Pressure of Pure Volatile Organic Compounds to Predict the Enthalpy of Vaporization and Computing the Entropy of Vaporization

Shawn M. Abernathy, Kelly R. Brown
The objective of this investigation was to develop a vapor pressure (VP) acquisition system and methodology for performing temperature-dependent VP measurements and predicting the enthalpy of vaporization (ΔHvap) of volatile organic compounds, i.e. VOCs. High quality VP data were acquired for acetone, ethanol, and toluene. VP data were also obtained for water, which served as the system calibration standard. The empirical VP data were in excellent agreement with its refe...
Open Access Library J.   Vol.2, 2015
Doi:10.4236/oalib.1101927


Apr 30, 2015Open    AccessArticle

Gaskets with Expandable Graphite Treated with Nitric, Sulphuric, Phosphoric Acids and Ferric Chloride

Heinrich Horacek
The task was to find out the most appropriate expandable graphite intercalation compound GIC for intumescent seals. The application in fire seals required GICs, which exerted high expansion at low burning rates. Therefore graphite was treated with nitric, sulphuric, phosphoric acids and ferric chloride. Phosphoric acid with its flame retardant properties was the favourite, but graphite treated with it, did not exfoliate, therefore expandable graphite was post treated with phosphoric acid. Elemen...
Open Access Library J.   Vol.2, 2015
Doi:10.4236/oalib.1101297


Sep 10, 2014Open    AccessArticle

Thermal Analysis of Combustion Engine in Accordance to Temperature at the Outside Surfaces of the Engine

Zbigniew J. Sroka
The internal combustion engine needs to be assessed in terms of thermal loads that come from different sources. Thermal analysis is important in both the design and the evaluation of the conditions of the engine. Interesting good results are obtained by association studies using non-invasive methods such as Infrared and mathematical modelling based on the boundary conditions identified in the experiment. The paper presents a methodology for measuring the surface temperature fields outside of the...
Open Access Library J.   Vol.1, 2014
Doi:10.4236/oalib.1100816


Aug 12, 2014Open    AccessArticle

Kinetics of Direct Reduction Titanomagnetite Briquette Produced from Rossetta-Ilmenite via Hydrogen

Naglaa Ahmed El-Hussiny, Atef El-Amir, Saied Thabet Abdel-Rahim, Khaled El hossiny, Mohamed El-Menshawi Hussein Shalabi

Reduction kinetics of titanomagnetite concentrate briquettes produced from Rossetta-llmenite ore via 1.5 liter/min hydrogen flow rate were investigated at different temperatures ranging from 600℃ to 950℃. It was found that the best reduction properties were found at 950℃, so the kinetic models shown by the briquettes at this temperature maybe: Diffusion control or Diffusion through ash layer (crank-cins

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Open Access Library J.   Vol.1, 2014
Doi:10.4236/oalib.1100662


Aug 08, 2014Open    AccessArticle

Preparation and Fire Test of Intumescent Powder Coatings

Heinrich Horacek

New regulations for hazardous air pollutants drove operations to compliant coatings. Powder coatings were the most popular choice. A screening of intumescent powder coatings was carried out comprising binders like thermoplastics as plasticised polyvinylchloride and polypropylene as well as non-cross linked thermosets as polyurethanes. Intumescence was achieved by addition of the intumescent ingredient bicyclopentaerythritol phosphate, by the intumescent

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Open Access Library J.   Vol.1, 2014
Doi:10.4236/oalib.1100564


Jun 23, 2014Open    AccessArticle

Characterization of ZnO Thin Films Grown by SILAR Method

A. Raidou,F. Benmalek,T. Sall,M. Aggour,A. Qachaou,L. Laanab,M. Fahoume

Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films have been deposited using a SILAR (Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction) technique, which is based on the alternate dipping of substrate in the solution and distilled water. The thin films were grown on copper, silicon and glass substrates. The precursors for ZnO films were diluted aqueous solution ZnSO4 complexed with NH3. The films were investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron micr

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Open Access Library J.   Vol.1, 2014
Doi:10.4236/oalib.1100588


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