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Sep 27, 2023Open    Access

Investigation into the Photon’s Structure

Isaak Man’kin
In the present paper we look at the structure of the photon from the point of view of electrodynamics using the generalized Maxwell equations. The reason for our analysis is that today the photon is viewed as a quantum of an electromagnetic field in the form of a harmonic transverse flat wave that travels through vacuum with the speed of light c. In this case the wave’s front takes the form of an infinite plane. From a physical point of view such a concept, in our opinion, is not very convincing...
Open Access Library J.   Vol.10, 2023
Doi:10.4236/oalib.1110659


Aug 23, 2023Open    Access

On the Structure of the Electron

Isaak Man’kin
Here we continue the discussion of the nature of elementary particles based on the theory of electrodynamics (generalized Maxwell equations [1]). As is noted in [1], such a theory should exist because photons partake in a variety of reactions in which they turn elementary particles into particles of other forms while having the property of being a quantum of an electromagnetic field. Unlike the widely accepted theory of point particles, we propose that particles are not “elementary” particles (...
Open Access Library J.   Vol.10, 2023
Doi:10.4236/oalib.1110504


Mar 20, 2023Open    Access

A Study of the Behavior of Mass of a Particle (Matter) under Gravitational Interaction with Another Particle in Relativistic Motion and the Mathematical Model

Santosh Kumar Karn, Necati Demiroglu
Gravitational interaction among objects of all sizes from subatomic particles (matters) having nonzero mass to clusters of galaxies in the universe whether at rest or in non-relativistic or relativistic motion tends to interact with each other. To understand the nature at deeper level, the study of gravitational interaction, theory of relativity and quantum mechanics is of great importance and is an active field of research these days. In the present work, an attempt is made to understand the gr...
Open Access Library J.   Vol.10, 2023
Doi:10.4236/oalib.1109741


Jan 31, 2023Open    Access

The Significance of the Distinction between a Necessary Condition and a Sufficient Condition

Eliahu Comay
The distinction between the concepts of a Necessary Condition and a Sufficient Condition is a fundamental element of mathematics. This issue certainly applies to physics which has a mathematical structure. However, this work shows that sometimes physical textbooks ignore this distinction. An analysis of the conserved 4-current of the Noether theorem proves that this issue is extremely important. The analysis uses the dimension of the Lagrangian density and the corresponding dimensi...
Open Access Library J.   Vol.10, 2023
Doi:10.4236/oalib.1109721


Nov 29, 2022Open    Access

Comparative Study between Different Macroscopic Approximations for Cold Plasma Modeling

Moustapha Ouali, Najlae Seddaoui, Youssef Lagmich
Several methods can be used to model the plasma, especially to solve the Maxwell-Boltzmann equation. In fact, the plasma is treated as a charged fluid in order to have an alternative solution for the resolution of the Maxwell-Boltzmann equation. This macroscopic model according to the complexity admits two approximations called Local Field Approximation and Local Energy Approximation. Consequently, the major objective of this article is to realize a comparative study between these two macroscopi...
Open Access Library J.   Vol.9, 2022
Doi:10.4236/oalib.1109497


Nov 29, 2022Open    Access

Negative Gravitational Mass: A Perfect Solution for Primordial Inflation and Dark Energy in the Early Universe

Stéphane Le Corre
This paper proposes a physical solution to primordial inflation. It occurs by a scalar field with a slow-rolling period. It starts at the phase transition giving rise to the gravitational interaction at time ti ~ 10-44 s, Planck time, and ends at time tf ~ 10-42 s (or more exactly about 70 e-folds later). This scalar field is carried by a primordial particle of inert mass mp ~ 1...
Open Access Library J.   Vol.9, 2022
Doi:10.4236/oalib.1109473


Nov 11, 2022Open    Access

Not Even Wrong—A Reexamination

Eliahu Comay
Fundamental elements of physical theories of systems of objects are examined. Consider the Newtonian mechanics, Maxwellian electrodynamics, relativistic mechanics, general relativity, and the Dirac theory of the electron. Each of these theories has specific differential equations whose solutions accurately describe the state and the time evolution of systems of particles that belong to the theory’s domain of validity. Well-known textbooks prove that these theories can be derived from the least a...
Open Access Library J.   Vol.9, 2022
Doi:10.4236/oalib.1109458


Aug 26, 2022Open    Access

Evidence of a Dark Matter that Is Not an Exotic Matter: WLM’s Case

Stéphane Le Corre
A recent article reports new observations of the gaseous content of Wolf-Lundmark-Melotte (WLM), an archetype of isolated, gas-rich field dwarf galaxies in the Local Universe, which presents an unexpected situation, four trailing, extended gas clouds lying in the direction opposite to WLM’s spatial motion, as well as a spatial offset between the WLM gas and stars, which rules out the near-completion merger hypothesis and suggests a process called ram-pressure stripping. For these authors, this f...
Open Access Library J.   Vol.9, 2022
Doi:10.4236/oalib.1109086


Aug 12, 2022Open    Access

A New Approach to Establishing Mass-Energy Equivalence

Valentin V. Mdzinarishvili
In the present work, Einstein’s formula, which establishes mass-energy equivalence, has been obtained using Joule’s law. For this purpose, the equality of the kinetic energy of the translational motion of molecules to the amount of energy released by direct current in the form of heat is used. It is noted that the emerging direct current is equivalent to the voltage drop at the ends of the resistance in a finite time. Attention is drawn to the fact that the translational velocity of electrons fo...
Open Access Library J.   Vol.9, 2022
Doi:10.4236/oalib.1108975


May 27, 2022Open    Access

New Models of the Physical Microcosm and Their Optimality

Valentin V. Mdzinarishvili
A solution to the Schrödinger equation completely mapped to the microlevel of the matter is obtained. The solution allows mathematically to ground the phenomenon of formation of the elementary antiparticles, emergence of the elementary particles from the vacuum at a high electric field intensity, to create a model of wave-particle duality and obtain a model of a gravitational wave. To obtain a model of antiparticles, a model of the emergence of elementary particles from a physical vacuum at...
Open Access Library J.   Vol.9, 2022
Doi:10.4236/oalib.1108461


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