Mar 20, 2023Open Access
Gravitational interaction among objects of all sizes from subatomic particles (matters) having nonzero mass to clusters of galaxies in the universe whether at rest or in non-relativistic or relativistic motion tends to interact with each other. To understand the nature at deeper level, the study of gravitational interaction, theory of relativity and quantum mechanics is of great importance and is an active field of research these days. In the present work, an attempt is made to understand the gr...
Jan 31, 2023Open Access
The distinction between the concepts of a Necessary Condition
and a Sufficient Condition
is a fundamental element of mathematics. This issue certainly applies to physics which has a mathematical structure. However, this work shows that sometimes physical textbooks ignore this distinction. An analysis of the conserved 4-current of the Noether theorem proves that this issue is extremely important. The analysis uses the dimension of the Lagrangian density and the corresponding dimensi...
Nov 29, 2022Open Access
Several methods can be used to model the plasma, especially to solve the Maxwell-Boltzmann equation. In fact, the plasma is treated as a charged fluid in order to have an alternative solution for the resolution of the Maxwell-Boltzmann equation. This macroscopic model according to the complexity admits two approximations called Local Field Approximation and Local Energy Approximation. Consequently, the major objective of this article is to realize a comparative study between these two macroscopi...
Nov 29, 2022Open Access
This paper proposes a physical solution to primordial inflation. It occurs by a scalar field with a slow-rolling period. It starts at the phase transition giving rise to the gravitational interaction at time ti
s, Planck time, and ends at time tf
s (or more exactly about 70 e-folds later). This scalar field is carried by a primordial particle of inert mass mp
Nov 11, 2022Open Access
Fundamental elements of physical theories of systems of objects are examined. Consider the Newtonian mechanics, Maxwellian electrodynamics, relativistic mechanics, general relativity, and the Dirac theory of the electron. Each of these theories has specific differential equations whose solutions accurately describe the state and the time evolution of systems of particles that belong to the theory’s domain of validity. Well-known textbooks prove that these theories can be derived from the least a...
Aug 26, 2022Open Access
A recent article reports new observations of the gaseous content of Wolf-Lundmark-Melotte (WLM), an archetype of isolated, gas-rich field dwarf galaxies in the Local Universe, which presents an unexpected situation, four trailing, extended gas clouds lying in the direction opposite to WLM’s spatial motion, as well as a spatial offset between the WLM gas and stars, which rules out the near-completion merger hypothesis and suggests a process called ram-pressure stripping. For these authors, this f...
Aug 12, 2022Open Access
In the present work, Einstein’s formula, which establishes mass-energy equivalence, has been obtained using Joule’s law. For this purpose, the equality of the kinetic energy of the translational motion of molecules to the amount of energy released by direct current in the form of heat is used. It is noted that the emerging direct current is equivalent to the voltage drop at the ends of the resistance in a finite time. Attention is drawn to the fact that the translational velocity of electrons fo...
May 27, 2022Open Access
A solution to the Schrödinger equation completely mapped to the microlevel of the matter is obtained. The solution allows mathematically to ground the phenomenon of formation of the elementary antiparticles, emergence of the elementary particles from the vacuum at a high electric field intensity, to create a model of wave-particle duality and obtain a model of a gravitational wave. To obtain a model of antiparticles, a model of the emergence of elementary particles from a physical vacuum at...
Apr 25, 2022Open Access
In this article, it is shown that if a particle is at rest and has some harmonic oscillation, then a traveling particle with a constant speed corresponds to a De Broglie Wave. In 1924, De Broglie proposed that particles of matter exhibit wave like behavior, the expression for which became fundamental in the creation of wave mechanics (quantum mechanics). The main equation for this is the Schrödinger equation, which in the case of free motion of a particle becomes the expression for the De B...
Apr 06, 2022Open Access
The concept of density in quantum theories of an elementary particle is discussed. Density is, at least implicitly, recognized in contemporary textbooks on quantum field theories, where the Noether theorem is utilized for a derivation of a conserved 4-current j,μμ
=0 and a conserved energy-momentum tensor T,νμν
=0. Here the component j0
is the particle’s density and the comp...