All Title Author
Keywords Abstract

Publish in OALib Journal
ISSN: 2333-9721
APC: Only $99


Assessment of Serum Electrolyte Levels & HbA1C Levels among Type 2 Diabetic Sudanese Patients with Macrovascular Complications in Khartoum State

DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1106110, PP. 1-9

Subject Areas: Diabetes & Endocrinology, Biochemistry

Keywords: Electrolyte, HbA1C, Sodium, Potassium, Macro Vascular Complications, Sudanese

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib


Background: Recently epidemiological studies have shown that type 2 diabetes mellitus is great a risk factor for cardiovascular mortality. Electrolyte abnormalities are commonly encountered in chronic diabetes mellitus type 2 patients. Aim: The aim of this study was to estimate serum electrolyte levels & HbA1C levels among Sudanese diabetic Patients with macrovascular complications in Khartoum State, Sudan. Materials & Methods: In this case, control hospital based study conducted in Khartoum state. Hundred subjects were involved; fifty were type 2 diabetes patients and fifty healthy subjects control group sex and age matched. Serum Na and K levels were estimated by Automated Biochemistry Analyzer (Easylyte electrolyte) and HbA1C by Automated Biochemistry Analyzer (Mindary Bs380). Result: The mean serum level of sodium and potassium in type 2 diabetes patients was significantly decreased (137.7 ± 4.05 vs 139.8 ± 3.62 mmol/l, p = 0.008 and 3.60 ± 0.20 vs 3.92 ± 0.22 mmol/l, p = 0.03 respectively). Whereas, HA1C level showed significant increases in the test group when compared with reference group (9.68 ± 1.24 vs 5.44% ± 0.42%, p = 0.000). Across gender, our study observed no significant alteration in serum Na and K levels (p > 0.05) in type 2 diabetic patients. Furthermore, serum Na level was significantly correlated with K (R = 0.369, p = 0.008). Whereas, both Na and K were in significantly correlated with patients age, HbA1c (%), and duration of DM (p > 0.05). In contrast, HA1C is significantly correlated with the duration of diabetes (R = 0.425, p = 0.002). Conclusion: Our study revealed significant alterations in electrolyte levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus and proper hyperglycemic control with evaluation of electrolyte levels can reduce the complication accompanied with electrolyte disbalance in type 2 DM.

Cite this paper

Ramadan, R. H. and Abdullah, A. M. (2020). Assessment of Serum Electrolyte Levels & HbA1C Levels among Type 2 Diabetic Sudanese Patients with Macrovascular Complications in Khartoum State. Open Access Library Journal, 7, e6110. doi:


[1]  Lobo, D.N. (2004) Fluid, Electrolytes and Nutrition: Physiological and Clinical Aspects. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 63, 453-466.
[2]  Khubchandani, A.S. and Sanghani, H. (2013) Study of Serum Magnesium and HbA1C in Diabetic Patients along with Changes in Their Lipid Profiles. Indian Journal of Clinical Practice, 23, 717-719.
[3]  Rao, G.M. (2002) Serum Electrolytes and Osmolality in Diabetes Mellitus. Indian Journal of Medical Sciences, 46, 301-303.
[4]  Shahid, S.M., Rafique, R.O.O.M.A.N.A. and Mahboob, T.A.B.A.S.S.U.M. (2005) Electrolytes and Sodium Transport Mechanism in Diabetes Mellitus. Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 18, 6-10.
[5]  Mohsin, R., Badar, B., Saeed, A. and Rehman, A. (2007) Type 2 Diabetes: The Relationship between the Serum Cholesterol and Triglycerides. The Professional Medical Journal, 14, 337-343.
[6]  Harris, M.I., Flegal, K.M., Cowie, C.C., Eberhardt, M.S., Goldstein, D.E., Little, R.R. and Byrd-Holt, D.D. (1998) Prevalence of Diabetes, Impaired Fasting Glucose, and Impaired Glucose Tolerance in US Adults: The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994. Diabetes Care, 21, 518-524.
[7]  Barbagallo, M., Dominguez, L.J. and Resnick, L.M. (2007) Magnesium Metabolism in Hypertension and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. American Journal of Therapeutics, 14, 375-385.
[8]  Frei, U. and Schober-Halstenberg, H.J. (1999) Annual Report of the German Renal Registry 1998. QuaSi-Niere Task Group for Quality Assurance in Renal Replacement Therapy. Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation: Official Publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association European Renal Association, 14, 1085-1090.
[9]  Liamis, G., Rodenburg, E.M., Hofman, A., Zietse, R., Stricker, B.H. and Hoorn, E.J. (2013) Electrolyte Disorders in Community Subjects: Prevalence and Risk Factors. The American Journal of Medicine, 126, 256-263.
[10]  Rohlfing, C.L., Little, R.R., Wiedmeyer, H.M., England, J.D., Madsen, R., Harris, M.I. and Goldstein, D.E. (2000) Use of GHb (HbA1c) in Screening for Undiagnosed Diabetes in the US Population. Diabetes Care, 23, 187-191. “
[11]  Khaw, K.T., Wareham, N., Luben, R., Bingham, S., Oakes, S., Welch, A. and Day, N. (2001) Glycated Haemoglobin, Diabetes, and Mortality in Men in Norfolk Cohort of European Prospective Investigation of Cancer and Nutrition (EPICNorfolk). British Medical Journal, 322, 15.
[12]  Kesaniemi, Y.A. and Grundy, S.M. (1983) Increased Low Density Lipoprotein Production Associated with Obesity. Arteriosclerosis: An Official Journal of the American Heart Association, 3, 170-177.
[13]  Hasona, N.A. and Elasbali, A. (2016) Evaluation of Electrolytes Imbalance and Dyslipidemia in Diabetic Patients. Medical Sciences, 4, 7.
[14]  Ugwuja, E. and Eze, N. (2006) A Comparative Study of Serum Electrolytes, Total Protein, Calcium and Phosphate among Diabetic and HIV/AIDS Patients in Abakaliki, Southeastern, Nigeria. The Internet Journal of Laboratory Medicine, 2.
[15]  Datchinamoorthi, S., Vanaja, R. and Rajagopalan, B. (2016) Evaluation of Serum Electrolytes in Type II Diabetes Mellitus. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research, 40, 251-253.
[16]  McDonnell, C.M., Pedreira, C.C., Vadamalayan, B., Cameron, F.J. and Werther, G.A. (2005) Diabetic Ketoacidosis, Hyperosmolarity and Hypernatremia: Are High-Carbohydrate Drinks Worsening Initial Presentation? Pediatric Diabetes, 6, 90-94.
[17]  Khan, R.N., Saba, F., Kausar, S.F. and Siddiqui, M.H. (2019) Pattern of Electrolyte Imbalance in Type 2 Diabetes Patients: Experience from a Tertiary Care Hospital. Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences, 35, 797-801.
[18]  Das, A. and Borkotok, S. (2016) Evaluation of Serum Electrolyte Levels in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Indian Journal of Applied Research, 6, Issue 8.
[19]  Wang, S., Hou, X., Liu, Y., Lu, H., Wei, L., Bao, Y. and Jia, W. (2013) Serum Electrolyte Levels in Relation to Macrovascular Complications in Chinese Patients with Diabetes Mellitus. Cardiovascular Diabetology, 12, 146.
[20]  Liamis, G., Liberopoulos, E., Barkas, F. and Moses, E. (2014) Diabetes Mellitus and Electrolyte Disorders. World Journal of Clinical Cases, 2, 488-496.
[21]  Pham, P.C., Pham, P.M., Pham, S.V., Miller, J.M. and Pham, P.T. (2007) Hypomagnesemia in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes. The Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, 2, 366-373.
[22]  Vallon, V., Richter, K., Blantz, R.C., Thomson, S. and Osswald, H. (1999) Glomerular Hyperfiltration in Experimental Diabetes Mellitus: Potential Role of Tubular Reabsorption. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, 10, 2569-2576.


comments powered by Disqus

Contact Us


微信:OALib Journal