All Title Author
Keywords Abstract

Publish in OALib Journal
ISSN: 2333-9721
APC: Only $99


Role of Trace Elements Alzheimer’s Disease

DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1100714, PP. 1-30

Subject Areas: Public Health, Clinical Trials

Keywords: Alzheimer’s Disease, Trace Elements, Flame Atomic Absorption, Multiple and Partial Correlation Coefficients and Regression Equations

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib


Atomic absorption analysis involves measuring the absorption of light by vaporized ground state atoms and relating the absorption to concentration. The incident beam of light is attenuated by atomic vapour absorption according to Beer’s Law. The estimation of trace elements shows a colorful presentation of different metals. It has been seen and found that the levels of zinc, calcium, magnesium, aluminum are lower in Alzheimer’s disease samples in comparison to healthy controls. The elements such as copper, iron, potassium and sodium were found higher than controls. A statistical analysis has been applied and measured regression with correlation coefficients including multiple correlation coefficients between different trace elements like Na, K, Ca, Mg, Zn, Cu, Fe and Al in normal samples. A trend has been found in coefficient of correlation such aswith positive correlation and  with negative correlation. Coefficient of partial correlation is also calculated and found that a trend has been set up between trace elements and given here as  with positive correlation and with negative correlation. Multiple correlation coefficient in normal healthy person has been estimated and found that a trend, which is given here as. Multiple correlation coefficient in AD samples has been estimated and found that a trend, which is given here as .

Cite this paper

Kumar, S. , Mittal, R. , Chaudhary, S. and Jain, D. C. (2014). Role of Trace Elements Alzheimer’s Disease. Open Access Library Journal, 1, e714. doi:


[1]  Sambat, L. (1994) Historical Perspectives. In: Handy, R.C., Turnbull, J.M., Clark, W. and LanCaster, M.N., Eds., Alzheimer’s Disease. A Hand Book for Care Givers, 2nd Edition, Mosby-Year, Book, Inc., St. Louis, 51-59.
[2]  Reger, B. (2002) Alzheimer’s Disease: A Brief History and Avenues for Current Research. Drew University, Madison, 1-5.
[3]  Whaley, N.S. (2002) Senility, Confusion, Debate Fear: Conceptualizing Alzheimer’s Disease and the History of Senile Dementia. Thesis, Drew University, Madison.
[4]  Rrown, C.B., Lockwood, A.H. and Sonawane, B.R. (2005) Neurodegenerative Disease: An Overview of Environmental Risk Factors. Environmental Health Perspectives, 113, 1250-1256.
[5]  Harry, V. and Jenaro, F. (2003) Alzheimer’s Disease. In: Cummings, J.L. and Martin, D., Eds., Neuropsychiatry of Alzheimer’s Disease and Related Dementias, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 57-116.
[6]  Lindy, E.H., Daniel, M., Linda, D., Jane, F., Sheila, B., Anderson, B., Chaterjee, A. and Bartolucci, A. (1995) Behavioral Changes in Early Alzheimer’s Disease. In: Iqbal, K., Martimer, J.A., Winblad, B. and Wisniewski, H.M., Eds., Research Advances in Alzheimer’s Disease and Related Disorders, John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, 219-224.
[7]  Robins, P.V., Mace, N.L. and Lucas, M.J. (1982) The Impact of Dementia on the Family. JAMA, 248, 333-335.
[8]  Folstein, M. and Bylsma, F.W. (1994) Non Cognitive Symptoms of Alzheimer’s Disease. In: Terry, R., Katzman, R. and Beck, K.C., Eds., Alzheimer’s Disease, Raven Press, New York, 27-40.
[9]  Reisberg, B., Borenstein, J., Salob, S.P., Ferris, S.H., Franssen, E. and Georgotas, A. (1987) Behavioral Symptoms in Alzheimer’s Disease: Phenomenology and Treatment. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 48, 9-15.
[10]  Teri, L., Larson, E. and Reixer, B. (1988) Behavioral Disturbance in Dementia of the Alzheimer’s Type. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 36, 1-6.
[11]  Berrios, G.E. and Brook, P. (1985) Delusions and the Psycholothology of the Elderly with Dementia. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 72, 296-301.
[12]  Cummings, J.L. (1985) Organic Delusions Phenomenology, Anatomical Correlations and Review. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 146, 184-197.
[13]  Cummings, J.L., Miller, B., Hill, M.A. and Neshkes, R. (1987) Neuro-psychiatric Aspects of Multi-Infarct Dementia and Dementia of the Alzheimer’s Type. Archives of Neurology, 44, 389-393.
[14]  Khachaturian, Z.S. (1987) Status of Alzheimer’s Disease Research. In: Altman, H.J., Ed., Alzheimer’s Disease Problems, Prospects and Perspectives, Springer, New York, 183-189.
[15]  Ranold, C.H. and Larry, B.H. (1994) Urinary and Fecal Incontinence. In: Handy, R.C., Turnbull, J.M., Clark, W. and Lancaster, M.N., Eds., Alzheimer’s Disease. A Hand Book for Care Givers, 2nd Edition, Mosby-Year, Book, Inc., St. Louis, 199-212.
[16]  Amaducci, L., Falcini, M. and Lippi, A. (1993) Descriptive Epidemiology for Risk Factors and Alz-heimer’s Disease. In: Corain, B., Iqbal, K., Nicolini, B., Winblad, H., Wisniewski and Zatta, P., Eds., Alzheimer’s: Advances in Clinical and Basis Research, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Hoboken, 105-111.
[17]  Hasegawa, K. (1997) Aspects of Community Mental Health Care of the Elderly in Japan. International Journal of Mental Health, 8, 36-49.
[18]  Nielsen, J. (1963) Geronotopsychiatric Period Presence Investigation in a Geographically Delimited Population. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 38, 307-330.
[19]  Jorm, A.F., Korten, A.E. and Henderson, A.S. (1987) The Prevalence of Dementia: A Quantative Investigation of the Literature. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 76, 465-479.
[20]  Ronald, C.H. and Lorry, B.H. (1994) Factors That Aggravate the Symptoms. In: Handy, R.C., Turnbull, J.M., Clark, W. and Lancaster, M.N., Eds., Alzheimer’s Disease. A Hand Book for Care Givers, 2nd Edition, Mosby-Year, Book, Inc., St. Louis, 104-116.
[21]  Ronald, C.H. (1994) Clinical Presentation. In: Handy, R.C., Turnbull, J.M., Clark, W. and Lancaster, M.N., Eds., Alzheimer’s Disease. A Hand Book for Care Givers, 2nd Edition, Mosby-Year, Book, Inc., St. Louis, 74-85.
[22]  Gauthier, S., Thal, L.J. and Rossor, M. (2001) The Future Diagnosis and Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease. In: Gauthier, S., Ed., Clinical Diagnosis and Management of Alzheimer’s Disease, Martin Dunitz, London, 369-398.
[23]  Wells, C.E. (1983) Differential Diagnosis of Alzheimer’s Dementia: Affective Disorder. In: Reisberg, B., Ed., Clinical Diagnosis and Different Diagnosis of Alzheimer’s Disease, Free Press, New York, 193-197.
[24]  Hachinsiki, V.C. (1983) Differential Diagnosis of Alzheimer’s Dementia: Multi Infarct Dementia. In: Reisberg, B., Ed., Alzheimer’s Disease, Free Press, MacMilllan, New York, 188-192.
[25]  Cummings, J. and Khachaturian, Z.S. (1996) Definitions and Diagnostic Criteria. In: Gauthier, S., Ed., Clinical Diagnosis and Management of Alzheimer’s Disease, Dunitz, London, 3-31.
[26]  Handerson, V.W. (1997) Estrogen, Cognition, and a Women’s Risk of Alzheimer’s Disease. American Journal of Medicine, 103, 115-185.
[27]  Rochon, P.A. and Gurwitz, H. (1996) Geriatrics: The Age of Women. The Lancet, 348, S118.
[28]  Howard, L.F. and Reid, B. (2002) Neurological Disorders of Increased Prevalence in Women Migraine, Multiple Sclerosis and Alzheimer’s Disease. In: Susan, G.K. and Clayton, A.H., Eds., A Comprehensive Text Book, The Guliford Press, New York, 467-480.
[29]  Cotman, C.W., Bridges, R., Pike, C., Kesslak, D.L. and Copani, A. (1993) Mechanism of Neuronal Cell Death in Alzheimer’s Disease. In: Corain, B., Iqbal, K., Nicolini, M., Winblad, B., Wisniewski, H. and Zatta, P., Eds., Alzheimer’s Disease: Advances in Clinical and Basic Research, John Wiley & Sons Ltd., Hoboken, 281-289.
[30]  Greig, N.H., et al. (2004) New Therapeutic Strategies and Drug Candidates for Neurodegenrative Disease: P53 and TNF-Alpha Inhibitors, and GLP-1 Receptor Agonists. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1035, 290-315.
[31]  Patterson, C., Feightner, J.W., Garcia, A.H., Sing, G.Y., Macknight, C. and Sadovnivk, A.D. (2008) Diagnosis and Treatment of Dementia: 1. Risk Assessment and Primary Prevention of Alzheimer’s Disease. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 178, 548-556.
[32]  Rosendorff, C., Beeri, M.S. and Silverman, J.M. (2007) Cordiovascular Risk Factors for Alzheimer’s Disease. The American Journal of Geriatric Cardiology, 16, 143-149.
[33]  Solfrizzi, V., et al. (2008) Life Style Related Factors in Predementia and Dementia Syndromes. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics, 8, 133-158.
[34]  Panza, F., Capurso, C., D’Introno A., Colacicco, A.M., Frisardi, V., Lorusso, M., Santamato, A., Seripa, D., Pilotto, A., Scafato, E., Vendemiate, G., Capurse, A. and Solfrizzi, V. (2009) Alcohol Drinking, Cognitive Functions in Older Age, Predementia and Dementia Syndromes. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, 17, 7-31.
[35]  Stern, Y.C. (2006) Cognitive Reserve and Alzheimer Disease. Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders, 20, S69- S74.
[36]  Shcherbatykh, I. and Carpenter, D.O. (2007) The Role of Metals in the Etiology of Alzheimer’s Disease. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, 11, 191-205.
[37]  Rondeau, V., Commenges, D., Jaeqmin-Gadd, H. and Dartigues, J.-F. (2000) Relation between Aluminum Concentrations in Drinking Water and Alzheimer’s Disease: An 8-Year Follow-Up Study. American Journal of Epidemiology, 152, 59-66.
[38]  Cataldo, J.K., Prochaska, J.J. and Glantz, S.A. (2010) Cigarette Smoking Is a Risk Factor for Alzheimer’s Disease: An Analysis Controlling for Tobacco Industry Affiliation. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, 19, 465-80.
[39]  Khachaturian, Z.S. and Radebaugh, T.S. (1996) Alzheimer’s Disease: Cause(s), Diagnostic Treatment, and Care. In: Boca. Ratan, F. L. and Kim, H., CRC Press, 239-247.
[40]  Geldmacher, D.S. (2007) Treatment Guidelines for Alzheimer’s Disease: Redefining Perception in Primary Care. Primary Care Companion to the Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 9, 113-121.
[41]  Schmitt, F.A. and Wichems, C.H. (2006) A Systematic Review of Assessment and Treatment of Moderate to Severe Alzheimer’s Disease. Primary Care Companion to the Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 8, 158-169.
[42] (1985) The Importance of Trace Minerals. NFM’s Nutrition Science News, 1-4.
[43]  Romeyn, M. (1998) Vitamins, Minerals and Trace Elements. Nutrition and HIV, Jossey-Bass Inc., San Francisco.
[44]  Herring, W.B., Leavell, B.S., Paixao, L.M. and Yoe, J.H. (1960) Trace Metals in Human Plasma and Red Blood Cells. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 8, 846-854.
[45]  Khurshid, S.J. and Qureshi, I.H. (1984) The role of Inorganic Elements in Human Body. The Nucleus, 21, 3-23.
[46]  Suhaila, R., Nasir, K., Shujaat, A., Nasim, U. and Mohammad, Z.I. (2004) Essential Trace Metals in Human Whole Blood in Relation to Environment. Pakistan Journal of Medical Research, 43, 1-5.
[47]  Kumar, S. (1989) Medico-Physical Studies on Epilepsy and Other Neurological Disorders. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Delhi, Delhi.
[48]  Mary, R.L.A., Kelvin, A.C., Sheila, D. and William, H.R. (2000) Nutrient Risk Assessment Implication for Food Fortification Policy, In: Rousel, A.M., Anderson, R.A. and Favrier, A., Eds., Trace Elements in Man and Animals, Kluwer Academic Publications, New York, Boston, Dordrecht, Lands, Moscow, 215-220.
[49]  Alexander, G.S. (1995) Minerals and Human Health: The Rationale for Optimal and Balanced Trace Element Levels. Life Sciences Press, Tacoma, 1-5.
[50]  Pike, R.L. and Brown, M.L. (1984) An Integrated Approach. Nutrition, John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, 197.
[51]  Zumkley, H. (1987) Trace Elements in Medicine. Fresenius’ Zeitschrift für analytische Chemie, 327, 6.
[52]  Davies, I.J.J. (1972) Clinical Significance of the Essential Biological Metals. Animal Health and Hygiene (General), William Heineman, London, 48-26.
[53]  Burns, R.R. and Fell, G.S. (1976) Estimation and Interpretation of Plasma Zinc Fractions. Scottish Medical Journal, 21, 153-154.
[54]  Prasad, A.S., and Oberleas, D. (1970) Binding of Zinc to Amino Acids and Serum Proteins in Vitro. Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine, 76, 416-425.
[55]  Kelin, D. and Mann, J. (1940) Carbonic Anhydrase: Purification and Nature of the Enzyme. Biochemical Journal, 34, 1163-1176.
[56]  Riordan, J.F. and Vallee, B.L. (1976) Structure and Function of Zinc Metalloenzymes. In: Prasad, A.S., Ed., Trace Elements in Human Health and Disease, Vol. 1, Academic Press, New York, 227-251.
[57]  Chavapil, M., Zukowski, C.F., Hattler, B.G., Stankova, L., Montgomery, D., Carlson, E.C. and Ludwig, J.C. (1976) Zinc and Activity of Cell Membrane. In: Prasad, A.S., Ed., Trace-Elements in Human Health and Disease, Vol. 1, Academic Press, New York, 269-281.
[58]  Prasad, A.S., Schulert, A.R., Sandstead, H.H., Miale Jr., A. and Farid, Z. (1963) Zinc, Iron and Nitrogen Content of Sweat in Normal and Deficient Subjects. Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine, 62, 84-89.
[59]  Walravens, P.A., Doornick, W.J.V. and Hambidge, K.M. (1978) Metals and Mental Function. The Journal of Pediatrics, 93, 535.
[60]  Henkin, R.I., Patten, B.M., Re, P.K. and Bronzett, D.A. (1975) A Syndrome of Acute Zinc Loss. Archives of Neurology, 32, 745-751.
[61]  Dresti, I.E. (1984) Zinc in the Central Nervous System: The Emerging Interactions. In: Frederickson, C.J., Howell, G.A. and Kasarskis, E.J., Eds., The Neurobiology of Zinc Part A, Alan R.L., New York, 1-26.
[62]  Fairbanks, V.F., Fahey, J.L. and Beutler, E. (1971) Clinical Disorders of Iron Metabolism. 2nd Edition, Grune and Stratton, New York, 1-486.
[63]  Mc Cance and Widdowson, E.M. (1937) Absorption and Excretion of Iron. The Lancet, 2, 680-684.
[64]  Gramick, S. (1946) Ferritin IX. Increase of the Protein Apoferritin in the Gastrointestinal Mucosa as a Direct Response to Iron Feeding. The Function of Ferritin in the Regulation of Iron Absorption. The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 164, 737-746.
[65]  Moore, C.V., Doan, C.A. and Arrowsmith, W.R. (1937) Studies in Iron Transportation and Metabolism, Mechanism of Iron Transportations: Its Significance in Iron Utilization in Anemic States of Varied Etiology. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 16, 627-648.
[66]  Mahler, H.R. and Elowe, D.G. (1953) DPNH-Cytochrome Reductase, a Ferroflavo Protein. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 75, 5769-5770.
[67]  Richert, D.A. and Westerfeld, W.W. (1954) The Relationship of Iron to Xanthime Oxidase. The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 209, 179-189.
[68]  Fisher, H. and Zeile, K. (1929) Synthesis of Hematoprophyrin, Protoporphyrin and Hemin. European Journal of Organic Chemistry, 468, 98-116.
[69]  Ingram, D.J.E., Gibson, J.F. and Perutz, M.F. (1956) Orientation of the Four Heme Groups in Hemoglobin. Nature, 178, 906-908.
[70]  Holmberg, G.C. and Laurell, C.B. (1947) Investigations in Serum Copper I. Nature of Serum Copper and Its Relation to the Iron-Binding Protein in Human Serum. Acta Chemica Scandinavica, 1, 944-950.
[71]  Schade, A.L., Reinhart, R.W. and Levy, H. (1949) Carbon Dioxide and Oxygen in Complex Formation with Iron and Siderophilin, the Iron-Binding Compound of Human Plasma. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 20, 170-172.
[72]  Lipschitz, D.A., Cook, J.D. and Finch, C.A. (1974) A Clinical Evaluation of Serum Ferritin as an Index of Iron Stores. The New England Journal of Medicine, 290, 1213-1216.
[73]  Simes, M.A., Addiego Jr., J.E. and Dallman, P.R. (1974) Ferritin in Serum: Diagnosis of Iron Deficiency and Iron Overload in Infants and Children. Blood, 43, 581-590.
[74]  Aikawa, J.K. (1971) The Relationship of Magnesium to Diseases in Domestic Animals and in Human. Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, 1-145.
[75]  Aikawa, J.K. (1976) Biochemistry and Physiology of Magnesium. In: Prasad, A.S., Ed., II. Trace Elements in Humans: Health and Diseases, Academic Press, New York, 47-78.
[76]  Widdowson, E.M., McCance, R.A. and Spray, C.N. (1951) The Clinical Composition of the Human Body. Clinical Science, 10, 113-125.
[77]  Waterlow, J.C. (1992) Endocrine Changes in Severe PEM. In: Waterlow, J.C., Ed., Protein-Energy Malnutrition, Edward Arnold, London, 112-125.
[78]  Classen, H.G. (1984) Magnesium and Potassium Deprivation and Supplementation in Animals and Man: Aspects in View of Intestinal Absorption. Magnesium, 3, 257-264.
[79]  Al-Ghamdi, S.M., Cameron, E.C. and Sutten, R.A. (1994) Magnesium Deficiency: Pathophysiologic and Clinical Overview. American Journal of Kidney Diseases, 24, 737-752.
[80]  Wester, P. (1987) Magnesium. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 45, 1305-1312.
[81]  Krasner, B. (1979) Cardiac Effects of Magnesium with Special Referenceto Anaesthesia: A Review. Canadian Anaesthetists’ Society Journal, 26, 181-185.
[82]  Furukawa, Y. and Chiba, S. (1981) Effects of Magnesium on the Isolated, Blood-Perfused Atrial and Ventricular Preparations of the Dog Heart. Japanese Heart Journal, 22, 239-246.
[83]  Stark, G., Stark, U., Pilger, E., Honigl, K., Bertuch, H. and Tritthart, H.A. (1989) The Influence of Elevated Mg2 Concentrations on Cardiac Electrophysiological Parameters. Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy, 3, 183-189.
[84]  Haigney, M.C.P., Berger, R., Schulman, S., Gerstenblith, G., Tunin, C., Silver, B., Silverman, H.S., Tomaselli, G. and Calkins, H. (1997) Tissue Magnesium Levels and the Arrhythmic Substrate in Humans. Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology, 8, 980-986.
[85]  Ireland, P. and Fordtran, J.S. (1973) Effect of Dietary Calcium and Age on Jejunal Calcium Absorption in Humans Studied by Intestinal Perfusion. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 52, 2672-2681.
[86]  Heaney, R.P., Saville, P.D. and Recker, R.R. (1975) Calcium Absorption as a Function of Calcium Intake. The Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine, 85, 881-890.
[87]  Wilkinson, R. (1976) Phosphate and Magnesium Metabolism. In: Nordin, B.E.C., Ed., Clinical Physiology and Diagnostic Procedures, Churchill Livingstone, Edinberg, 36-112.
[88]  Marshall, D.H. (1976) Calcium and Phosphate Kinetics Calcium, Phosphate and Magnesium Metabolism. In: Nordin, B.E.C., Ed., Clinical Physiology and Diagnostic Procedures, Churchill Livingstone, Edinberg, 257-297.
[89]  Morris, H.A., Need, A.G., Horowitz, M., O’Loughlin, P.D. and Nordin, B.E. (1991) Calcium Absorption in Normal and Osteoporotic Postmenopausal Women. Calcified Tissue International, 49, 240-243.
[90]  Ebeling, P.R., Yergey, A.L., Vieira, N.E., Burritt, M.F., O’Fallon, W.M., Kumar, R. and Riggs, B.L. (1994) Influence of Age on Effects of Endogeneous 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D on Calcium Absorption in Normal Women. Calcified Tissue International, 55, 330-334.
[91]  Need, A.G., Morris, H.A., Horowitz, M., Scopacasa, E. and Nordin, B.E. (1998) Intestinal Calcium Absorption in Men with Spinal Osteoporosis. Clinical Endocrinology, 48, 163-168.
[92]  Nordin, B.E.C. (1976) Nutritional Considerations. In: Nordin, B.E.C., Ed., Clinical Physiology and Diagnostic Procedures, Edinberg, Churchill Livingstone, 1-35.
[93]  Kent, G.N., Price, R.I., Gutteridge, D.H., Allen, J.R., Barnes, M.P., Hickling, C.J., Retallack, R.W., Wilson, S.G., Devlin, R.D., Price, R.I., Smith, M., Bhagat, C.I., Davies, C. and St. Johns, A. (1990) Human Lactation: Forearm Trabecular Bone Loss, Increased Bone Turnover, and Renal Conservation of Calcium and Inorganic Phosphate with Recovery of Bone Mass Following Weaning. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, 5, 361-369.
[94]  Lopez, J.M., Gonzalez, G., Reyes, V., Campino, C. and Diaz, S. (1996) Bone Turnover and Density in Healthy Women during Breastfeeding and after Weaning. Osteoporosis International, 6, 153-159.
[95]  Chan, G.M., McMurray, M., Westover, K., Engelbert-Fenton, K. and Thomas, M.R. (1987) Effects of Increased Dietary Calcium Intake upon the Calcium and Bone Mineral Status of Lacting Adolescent and Adult Women. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 46, 319-323.
[96]  Katz, M. and Steihm, E.R. (1977) Host Defense in Malnutrition. Pediatrics, 59, 490-495.
[97]  Suskind, R.M. (1977) Malnutritian and the Immune Response. Kroc Foundation Series, Vol. 7, Raven Press, New York, 468.
[98]  Bongiorni-Malave, I.B. and Pocino, M. (1980) Abnormal Regulatory Control of the Antibody Response to Hetrologous Erythrocytes in Protein-Calorie-Malnourished Mice. Clinical Immunology and Immunopathology, 16, 19-29.
[99]  Malave, I., Nemeth, A. and Pocino, M. (1980) Changes in Lymphocyte Populations in Proteins-Caloriedefieient Mice. Cellular, 49, 235-249.
[100]  Gershwin, M.E., Keen, C.L., Fletcher, M.P. and Hurley, L.S. (1988) Trace Element Deficiencies and Immune Responsiveness. In: Hurley, L.S., Keen, C.L., Lonnerdal, B. and Rucker, R.B, Eds., Trace Elements in Man and Animals, Plenum Press, New York and London, 85-89.
[101]  Rigas, D.A., Rigas, E.C. and Head, C. (1979) Biophasic Toxicity of Diethyldithiocarbamate, a Metal Chelator, to T Leymphocytes and Polymorphonucuclear Granulocytes: Reversal by Zinc and Copper. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 88, 373-379.
[102]  Underwood, E.J. (1977) Trace Element in Human and Mimal Nutrition. In: Mertz, W., Ed., 4th Edition, Academic Press, New York, 430-433.
[103]  Daniel, P.P. (1988) Aluminum and Alzheimer’s Disease; Methodologic Approaches. In: Sigel, H. and Sigel, A., Eds., Metal Ions in Biological Systems, Vol. 24, Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, 259-283.
[104]  Ehmann, W.D., Markesbery, W.R., Alauddin, M., Hassain, T.I. and Brubaker, E.H. (1986) Brain Trace Elements in Alzheimer’s Disease. Neurotoxicology, 7, 197-206.
[105]  Cornett, C.R., Markesbery, W.R. and Ehmann, W.D. (1998) Imbalances of Trace Elements Related to Oxidative Damage in Alzheimer’s Disease Brain. Neurotoxicology, 19, 339-345.
[106]  Huseyin, V., Hilmi, D., Yusuf, K., Ibrahim, E. and Namik, D. (2010) Alterations of Plasma Magnesium, Copper, Zinc, Iron, and Selemium Concentrations and Some Related Erythrocyte Antioxidant Enzyme Activities in Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, 24, 169-173.
[107]  Ashley, I.B. and Tanzi, R.E. (1995) The Role of Zinc in the Cerebrad Deposition of Aβ Amyloid in Alzheimer’s Disease. In: Iqbal, K., Mortimen, J.A., Winblad, B. and Wisniewski, H.M., Eds., Research Advances in Alzheimer’s Disease and Related Disorders, John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, 607-618.
[108]  Wenstrup, D., Ehmann, W.D. and Markesbery, W.R. (1990) Trace Element Imbalance in Isolated Sub Cellular Fractions of Alzheimer’s Disease Brains. Brain Research, 533, 125-131.
[109]  Cantantindis, J. (1990) Maladie d’Alzheimer et la théorie du Zinc. L’Encephale, 16, 231-9.
[110]  Corrigan, F.M., Reynolds, G.P. and Ward, M.I. (1993) Hippocampal Tin, Aluminium and Zinc in Alzheimer’s Disease. Biometals, 6, 149-154.
[111]  Hershey, C.O., Hershey, L.A., Varnes, A., Vibhakar, S.D. and Lavin, P. and Strain, W.H. (1983) Cerebrospinal Fluid Trace Element Content in Dementia: Clinical Radiologic and Pathologic Correlations. Neurology, 33, 1350-1353.
[112]  Lui, E., Fisman, M., Wang, C. and Diaz, F. (1990) Metals and the Liver in Alzheimer’s Disease: An Investigation of Hepatic Zinc, Copper, Cadmium and Metallothianein. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 38, 633-639.
[113]  Backstrom, J.R., Miller, C.A. and Tokde’s, Z.A. (1992) Characterization of Neutral Proteinases from Alzheimer-Affected and Control Brain Specimens: Identification of Calcium-Dependent Metalloproteinase from the Hippocampus. Journal of Neurochemistry, 58, 983-992.
[114]  Uchida, Y., Takio, K., Titani, K., Ihara, Y. and Tomonaga, M. (1991) The Growth Inhibitory Factor That Is Deficient in the Alzheimer’s Disease Brain Is a 68-Amino Acid Metallothianein-Like Protein. Neuron, 7, 337-347.
[115]  Franceschi, C., Chiricolo, M., Licastro, F., Zannotti, M., Masi, M., Macchegiani, E. and Fabris, N. (1988) Oral Zinc Supplementation in Down’s Syndrome: Restoration of Thymic Endocrine Activity and Some Immune Defects. Journal of Mental Deficiency Research, 32, 169-181.
[116]  Bjorkstem, B., Back, O., Gustavason, K.H., Hallmans, G., Hagglof, B. and Tarnvik, A. (1980) Zinc and Immune Function in Down’s Syndrome. Acta Paediatrica Scandinavica, 69, 183-187.
[117]  Napolitano, G., Palka, G., Grimaldi, S., Giuliani, C., Laglia, G., Calabarese, G., Satta, M.A., Neri, G. and Monaco, F. (1990) Growth and Delay in Down Syndrome and Zinc Sulphate Supplementation. American Journal of Medical Genetics. Supplement, 7, 63-65.
[118]  Mc Lachlan, C., Kruck, T.P., Lukiw, W.J. and Krishnan, S.S. (1991) Would Decreased Aluminium Ingestion Reduce the Incidence of Alzheimer’s Disease? Canadian Medical Association Journal, 145, 793-804.
[119]  Frederickson, C.J., Klitenick, M.A., Manten, W.I. and Kirkpatrick, J.B. (1983) Cytoarchitectonic Distribution of Zinc in the Hippocampus of Man and the Rat. Brain Research, 272, 335-339.
[120]  Frederickson, C.J. (1989) Neurobiology of Zinc and Zinc Containing Neurons. International Review of Neurobiology, 31, 145-328.
[121]  Choi, D.W., Yokoyama, M. and Koh, J. (1988) Zinc Neurotoxicity in Cortical Cell Culture. Neuroscience, 24, 67-79.
[122]  Stewart, G.R., Frederickson, C.J., Howell, G.A. and Gage, F.H. (1984) Choleinergicdeneutruation Induced Increase of Chelatable Zinc in Mossy-Fiber Region of the Hippocampal Formation. Brain Research, 290, 43-51.
[123]  Hyman, B.T., Van Hoesen, G.W, Kroner, L.J. and Damasio, A.R. (1986) Perforant Pathway Changes and the Memory Impairment of Alzheimer’s Disease. Annals of Neurology, 20, 472-481.
[124]  Hicks, N.M., Brammer, M.J., Hymans, N. and Levy, R. (1987) Platelet Membrane Properties in Alzheimer’s and Multi-Infarct Dementias. Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders, 1, 90-97.
[125]  Pohit, J., Saha, K.C. and Pal, B. (1981) A Zinc Tolerance Test. Clinica Chimica Acta, 114, 279-281.
[126]  Sandstrom, B., Arvidsson, B., Cederblad, A. and Bjorn-Rasmussen, E. (1980) Zinc Absorption from Composite Metals I. The Significance of Wheat Extraction Rate, Zinc, Calcium, and Protein Content in Metals Based on Bread. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 33, 739-745.
[127]  Burnet, F.M. (1981) A Possible Role of Zinc in Dementia. The Lancet, 1, 186-188.
[128]  Markesbery, W.R., Ehmann, W.D., Hossain, T.I.M., Alauddin, M. and Goodin, D.T. (1981) Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis of Brain Aluminium in Alzheimer’s Disease and Aging. Annals of Neurology, 10, 511-516.
[129]  Ehmann, W.D., Markesbery, W.R., Alauddin, M., Hossain, T.I.M. and Brubaker, E.H. (1986) Brain Trace Elements in Alzheimer’s Disease. Neurotoxicology, 7, 197-206.
[130]  Ehmann, W.D., Markesbery, W.R. and Alauddin, M. (1984) Quantitation, Localization and Variations of Brain Zinc with Aging by Instrumental Neuton Activation Analysis. In: Frederickson, C.J., Howell, G.A. and Kassarskis, E.J., Eds., Neurobiology of Zinc. Part A. Physiochemistry, Anatomy, and Techniques, Alan R. Liss, New York, 329-342.
[131]  Thompson, C.M., Markesbery, W.R., Ehmann, W.D. and Vance, D.E. (1988) Regional Brain Trace Elements Studies in Alzheimer’s Disease. Neurotoxicology, 9, 1-8.
[132]  Hershey, L.A., Hershey, C.O., Varnes, A.W., Wongmongkolrit, T. and Strain, W.H. (1984) Zinc Content in CSF, Brain and Other Tissues in Alzheimer’s Disease and Aging. In: Frederickson, C.J., Howell, G.A. and Kassarskis, E.J., Eds., The Neurobiology of Zinc. Part B. Deficiency, Toxicity and Pathology, Alan R. Liss, New York, 325-334.
[133]  Markesbery, W.R. and Ehmann, W.D. (1994) Brain Trace Elements in Alzheimer’s Disease. In: Terry, R.D., Katzman, R. and Bick, K.L., Eds., Alzheimer’s Disease, Raven Press Ltd., New York, 353-367.
[134]  Goodman, L. (1953) Alzheimer’s Disease: A Clinico-Pathologic Analysis of Twenty Three Cases with a Theory on Pathogenesis. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 117, 97-130.
[135]  Good, P.F., Perl, D.P., Bierer, L.M. and Schmeidler, J. (1992) Selective Accumulation of Aluminum and Iron in the Neurofibrillary Tangles of Alzheimer’s Disease: A Laser Microprobe (LAMMA) Study. Annals of Neurology, 31, 286- 292.
[136]  Andorn, M.C., Britten, R.S. and Bacon, B.R. (1990) Evidence That Lipid Peroxidation and Total Iron Are Increased in Alzheimer’s Brain. Neurobiology of Aging, 11, 316-323.
[137]  Connor, J.R., Menzies, S.L., St. Martin, S.M., Mufison, E.J. (1992) A Histochemical Study of Iron, Transferrin and Ferritin in Alzheimer’s Diseased Brains. Journal of Neuroscience Research, 31, 75-83.
[138]  Ehmann, W.D., Markesbery, W.R. Alauddin, M.T.I.M. and Brubaker, E.H. (1986) Brain Trace Elements in Alzheimer’s Disease. Neurotoxicology, 7, 197-206.
[139]  Fleming, J. and Joshi, J.G. (1987) Ferritin: Isolation of Aluminum-Ferritin Complex from Brain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 84, 7866-7870.
[140]  Switzer, R.C., Martin, T.L., Campbell, S.K., Parker, J.C. and Caldwell, E.D. (1986) Iron and Ferritin in the Neuritic Plaques of Alzheimer’s Disease. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts, 100.
[141]  Grundke-Iqbal, I., Fleming, J., Tung, Y.C., Lassmann, H., Iqbal, K. and Joshi, J.G. (1990) Ferritin Is a Component of the Neuritic (Seniles) Plaque in Alzheimer Dementia. Acta Neuropathologica, 81, 105-110.
[142]  Connor, J.R. Menzies, S.L., St. Martin, S.M. and Mufsan, E.J. (1990) Cellular Distribution of Transferrin, Ferritin, and Iron in Normal and Aged Human Brains. Journal of the Neurological Sciences, 27, 595-611.
[143]  Sherrington, R., Rogaeu, E.I., Liang, Y., Rogaeva, E.A., Levesque, G., Ikeda, M., Chi, H., Lin, C., Li, G., Holman, K., Tsuda, T., Mar, L., Fencin, T.F., Bruni, A.C., Montesi, M.P., Sorbi, S., Rainero., I., Phinessi, L., Nee, L., Chumako, I., Pollen, D., Brookes, A., Sanseau, P., Polinsky, R.J., Wasco, W., Dasilva, H.A.R., Haines, J.L., Pericak-Vance, M.A., Tanzi, R.E., Roses, A.D., Fraser, P.E., Rommes, T.M. and St. George-Hyslof, P.H. (1995) Cloning of a Gene Bearing Missense Mutations in Early-Onset Familial Alzheimer’s Disease. Nature, 375, 754-760.
[144]  Peterson, C., Gibson, G.E. and Blass, J.P. (1985) Altered Calcium Uptake in Cultured Skin Fibroblasts from Patients of Alzheimer’s Disease. The New England Journal of Medicine, 312, 1063-1064.
[145]  Ito, E., Oka, K., Etcheberrigaray, R., Nelson, T.T., Mcphie, D.L., Totel-Grehl, B., Gibson, G.E. and Alkan, D.L. (1994) Internal Ca2 Mobilization Is Altered in Fibroblasts from Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 91, 534-538.
[146]  Peterson, C., Ratan, R. R., Shelanski, M. L. and Goldman, J. E. (1986) Cytosolic Free Calcium and Cell Spreading Decrease in Fibroblasts from Aged and Alzheimer’s Donors. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 83, 7999-8001.
[147]  Peterson, C. and Goldman, T.E. (1988) Alteration in Calcium Content and Biochemical Processes in Cultured Skin Fibroblasts from Aged and Alzheimer’s Donors. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 83, 2758-2762.
[148]  Chakroborty, S. and Slutzmann, G.E. (2011) Early Calcium Dysregulation in Alzheimer’s Disease: Setting the Stage for Synaptic Dysfunction. Science China. Life Science, 54, 752-762.
[149]  Mc Coy, K.R., Mullins, R.D., New Comb, T.G., Pavlinkova, R.J., Nee, L.E. and Sisken, J.E. (1991) Serum and Bradykinin-Induced Calcium Transients in Familial Alzheimer’s Fibroblasts. Neurobiology of Aging, 14, 447-455.
[150]  Huang, H.M., Toral-Barza, L., Thaler, H., Totel-Grehl, B. and Gibson, G.E. (1991) Inositol Phosphates and Interacellular Calcium after Bradykinin Simulation in Fibroblasts from Young, Normal Aged and Alzheimer’s Donors. Neurobiology of Aging, 12, 469-473.
[151]  Borden, L.A., Maxfield, F.R., Goldman, J.E. and Shelanski, M.L. (1992) Resting [Ca2 ]i and [Ca2 ]i Transient Are Similar in Fibrablasts from Normal and Alzheimer’s Disease Donors. Neurobiology of Aging, 13, 33-38.
[152]  Khachaturian, Z.S. (1984) Towards Theory of Brain Aging. In: Kay, D.S. and Burrows, G.W., Eds., Handbook of Studies on Psychiatry and Old Age, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 7-30.
[153]  Mattson, M.P. (1992) Calcium as Sculptor and Destroyer’s of Neural Circuity. Experimental Gerontology, 27, 29-49.
[154]  Canzoniero, L.M. and Snider, B.J. (2005) Calcium in Alzheimer’s Disease Pathogenesis: Too Much, Too Little or in the Wrong Place. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, 8, 147-154.
[155]  Martyn, C.M., Singh, S. and Wood, P.J. (1989) Calcium Metabolism in Alzheimer’s Disease. A Case-Control Study, Gerontology, 35, 153-157.
[156]  Mattson, M.P. and Chan, S.L. (2003) Neuronal and Glial Calcium Signalling in Alzheimer’s Disease. Cell Calcium, 34, 385-397.
[157]  Woods, N.K. and Padmanabhan, J. (2012) Neuronal Calcium Signalling and Alzheimer’s Disease. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, 740, 1193-1217.
[158]  Pascale, A. and Etcheberrigaray, R. (1997) Calcium Alterations in Alzheimer’s Disease: Pathophysiology, Models and Therapeutic Opportunities. Pharmacological Research, 39, 81-88.
[159]  Frank, M.L. (2002) Calcium Dyshomeastasis and Intracellular Signalling in Alzheimer’s Disease. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 3, 862-872.
[160]  Bojarski, L., Herms, J. and Kuznicki, J. (2008) Calcium Dyes Regulation in Alzheimer’s Disease. Neurochemistry International, 52, 621-633.
[161]  Berridge, M.J. (2010) Calcium Hypothesis of Alzheimer’s Disease. Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology, 459, 441-449.
[162]  Cilliler, A.E., Ozturk, S. and Ozbakir, S. (2007) Serum Magnesium Level And clinical Deterioration in Alzheimer’s Disease. Gerontology, 53, 419-422.
[163]  Ali, S.S., Mahdi, F., Jatar, M., Mohammad, M. and Robas, M. (2013) Study on Serum Magnesium Level in Alzheimer’s Disease and Its Relationship with the Stage of Disease. Medical Journal of Tabriz University of Medical Science, 32, 57-621.
[164]  Durlach, J. (1990) Magnesium Depletion and Pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s Disease. Magnesium Research, 3, 217-218.
[165]  Glick, J.L. (1990) Dementias: The Role of Magnesium Deficiency and an Hypothesis Concerning the Pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s Disease. Medical Hypotheses, 31, 211-225.
[166]  Korf, J., Gramsbergn, J.B.P., Prenen, G.H.M. and Go, K.G. (1986) Cation Shifts and Excitotoxins in Alzheimer and Huntington Disease and Experimental Brain Damage. Progress in Brain Research, 70, 213-226.
[167]  Barbagallo, M., Beluedere, M., Di Bella, G. and Domingues, L.J. (2011) Dementia Less Likely with Increased Levels of Magnesium etc. Magnesium Research, 24, S115-S121.
[168]  Mielke, M.M., Zandi, P.P., Blennow, K., Gustafson, D., Sjogren, M. Rosengren, L. and Skoog, I. (2006) Low Serum Potassium in Mid Life Associated with Decreased Cerebrospinal Fluid Aβ42 in Late Life. Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders, 20, 30-36.
[169]  Diebel, M.A., Ehmann, W.D. and Markesbery, W.R. (1996) Copper, Iron and Zinc Imbalances in Severely Degenerated Brain Regions in Alzheimer’s Disease: Possible Relation to Oxidative Stress. Journal of the Neurological Sciences, 143, 137-142.
[170]  Huseyin, V., Hilmi, D., Yusuf, K., Ibrahim, E. and Nam, K.D. (2010) Alterations of Plasma Magnesium, Copper, Zinc, Iron and Selenium Concentrations and Some Related Erythrocyte Antioxidant Enzyme Activities in Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, 24, 169-173.
[171]  Philip, G.S. (1992) Theory of the Aetiology of Alzheimer’s Disease. Brain Biochemistry and Brain Disorders, Oxford University Press, Oxford, New York, 342.
[172]  Mattiello, G., Gerotto, M., Favarato, M., Lazzari, F., Gasparoni, G., Goniratu, L., Mazzolini, G., Scarpa, G., Zanoboni, V., Pilone, M.G. and Zafta, P.F. (1993) Plasma Micro Elemental Analysis from Alzheimer’s and Multi Infarctual Dementia Patients. In: Corain, B., Iqbal, K., Nicolini, M., Winblad, B., Wisneiwski, H. and Zatta, P., Eds., Alzheimer’s Disease: Advances in Clinical and Basic Research, John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, 267-272.
[173]  Mc Lachlan, D.R. (1986) Aluminium and Alzheimer’s Disease. Neurobiology of Aging, 1, 525-532.
[174]  Cornett, C.R., Ehmann, W.D. and Wekstein, D.R. and Markesbery, W.R. (1998) Trace Elements in Alzheimer’s Disease Pituatry Glands. Biological Trace Element Research, 62, 107-114.
[175]  Walsh, A. (1956) The Application of Atomic Absorption Spectra to Chemical Analysis. Spectrochimica Acta, 7, 108- 117.
[176]  Skoog, D.A., Holler, F.J. and Nieman, T.A. (1998) Prinicples of Instrumental Analysis. 5th Edition, Harcourt Brace & Company, Philadelphia, 849.
[177]  John, H., Maxwell, J.D., Stewart, D.A., Parsons, V. and Williams, R. (1971) Altered Calcium Metabolism in Epileptic Children on Anti-Convulsants. British Medical Journal, 4, 202-204.
[178]  Prasad, R., Singh, A., Das, B.K., Upadhyay, R.S., Singh, T.B. and Mishra, O.P. (2009) Cerebrospinal Fluid and Serum Zinc Copper, Magnesium and Calcium Levels in Children with Idiopathic Seizure. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, 3, 1841-1846.
[179]  Lech, T. (2001) Calcium and Magnesium Content in Hair as a Predictor of Disease in Children. Trace Elements and Electrolytes, 18, 112-121.
[180]  Avci, H., Kizilkan, N. and Yaman, M., (2008) Comparison of Trace Elements Concentrations in Scalp Hair of Epileptic and Normal Subjects. Trace Elements and Electrolytes, 25, 147-155.
[181]  Barlow, P.J., Francois, P.E., Goldberg, I.J. Richardson, I., Izmeth, M.G., Kumpeson, K. and Sykes, P. (1986) Trace Metal Abnormalities in Long Stay Hyperactive Mentally Handicapped Children and Agitates Senile Dements. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 79, 581-583.
[182]  Khanna, R.S., Kumar, R., Asthana, R.K., Negi, R., Pande, D., Kumar, A. and Khanna, H.D. (2009) Role of Trace Element and Antioxidants in Free Radical Mediated Injury in Neonates. MASAUM Journal of Basic and Applied Science, 1, 543-547.
[183]  Adnan, M., Ahmed, G., Khaled, O., Indress, A.M., Ahmed, A., Hiatham, T. and Wall, H. (2010) Simultaneous Determination of Cd, Pd, Cu Zn and Se in Human Blood of Jordanian Smokers by ICP-OES. Biological Trace Element Research, 133, 1-11.
[184]  Guidotti, T.L., McNamra, J. and Moses, M.S. (2008) The Interpretation of Trace Element Analysis in Body Fluids. Indian Journal of Medical Research, 128, 524-532.
[185]  Deniz, T., Ali, H.T. and Saraymen, R (2008) The Effects of Antiepileptic Drugs on Serum and Hair Trace Element Levels. Ankara üniversitesi Tip Fakültesi Mecmuasi, 61, 73-76.
[186]  Soylak, M., Saracoglu, S., Divrikli, U. and Elci, L. (2001) Copper and Zinc Concentrations of Serum Samples of Healthy People Living in Tokat, Turkey. Trace Element and Electrolytes, 18, 47-40.
[187]  Delves, H.T., Clayton, B.E. and Bicknel, J. (1973) Concentration of Trace Metals in the Blood of Children. British Journal of Preventive Social Medicine, 27, 100-107.
[188]  Kumar, S., Bajaj, M., Jain, D.C. and Yadav, H.S. (1988) A Search for the Trace Elemental Deficiencies in Grand Mal Epilepsy Using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometric Technique and Catalytic Agent in the Cellular Enzyme Reaction. Proceedings of the World Congress on Clinical Nutrition, 1, 115A-121A.
[189]  Smith, W.G. and Bone, I. (1982) Copper, Zinc and Magnesium Plasma Levels in Epilepsy. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery Psychiatry, 45, 1072-1073.
[190]  Kaji, M., Ito, N., Okuno, T., Momoi, T., Sasaki, H., Yamanake, C., Yorifuji, T. and Mikawa, H. (1992) Serum Copper and Zinc Levels in Epileptic Children with Valporate Treatment. Epilepsia, 33, 555-557.
[191]  Kumar, S., Kumar, V. and Jain, D.C. and Mittal, R. (2013) Trace Element Analysis in Epileptic Children. Open Journal of Applied Sciences, 3, 449-476.


comments powered by Disqus

Contact Us


微信:OALib Journal