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Aug 04, 2022Open    AccessArticle

Entropy of State of Quantum System and Dynamic of This System

Malkhaz Mumladze
This work defined the concept of entropy for states of a quantum system and built a stochastic model of a dynamic closed quantum system. This paper also is considered new approaches to the concepts of statistics and spin of elementary particles.
Open Access Library J.   Vol.9, 2022
Doi:10.4236/oalib.1109052


May 30, 2022Open    AccessArticle

Effect of Porosity on the Laminar Condensation Type Thin Film on a Vertical Wall in Forced Convection

Momath Ndiaye, Madialène Sène, Goumbo Ndiaye, Mamadou Salif. Mané
Studies concerning induced heat transfer by the condensation in forced convection of a thin film of a saturated vapor in medium porous, have received particular attention because of their numerous applications in various fields of technology. Thus, the presence of a layer of porous material on a plane wall generates an increase in heat transfer compared with that observed for a flat plate, subject to the same aeraulic and thermal conditions. This prompted us, given the large field of application...
Open Access Library J.   Vol.9, 2022
Doi:10.4236/oalib.1108828


Oct 21, 2021Open    AccessArticle

A New Way to Calculate Gravity Force from Mass Total Energy

Keli Kou
This paper introduces a new way to calculate gravity force from mass total energy, instead of from matter of mass. By introducing total energy (E1 and E2) of the two objects into Newton’s gravitational theory, Newton’s gravitational formula can be modified from F = GM1M2/r2 as F = GE1E2/(C4r2). E1 and E2 are the total energy of the two objects and C is the light speed. Then this formula can be furt...
Open Access Library J.   Vol.8, 2021
Doi:10.4236/oalib.1107987


Sep 23, 2021Open    AccessArticle

GGA + U Study of the Optical Properties of LiH

Uko Ofe, Anthony Lordson Amana, Nsed A. Akonjom
In this paper, the optical properties of Lithium hydride (LiH), in rocksalt structure, with space group, Fm3m, in cubic (FCC) system, have been discussed. The theoretical background of the relation between the dielectric function, and, other optical constants has been examined. The real and imaginary parts of the dielectric function have also been scrutinized. The consequences of the exchange correlation potentials (GGA and GGA U) applied to the absorption peaks and edges of the compound have ...
Open Access Library J.   Vol.8, 2021
Doi:10.4236/oalib.1107376


Aug 20, 2021Open    AccessArticle

The Stephani Universe, K-Essence and Strings in the 5-th Dimension

Gary Bruce Tupper, Mark Marais, Jose Abdella Helayel-Neto
The Stephani universe is an inhomogeneous alternative to ΛCDM. We show that the exotic fluid driving the Stephani exact solution of Einstein’s equations is an unusual form of k-essence that is linear in “velocity”. Much as the Stephani universe can be embedded into (a section of) flat 5-d Minkowski space-time, we show that the k-essence obtains through dimensional reduction of a 5-d strongly coupled non-linear “electrodynamics” that, in the empty Stephani universe, corresponds to space filling m...
Open Access Library J.   Vol.8, 2021
Doi:10.4236/oalib.1103654


Feb 26, 2021Open    AccessArticle

The Size and Shape of a Single Photon

Zhenglong Xu
The size and shape of a single photon is a property of photon shown in the collision of the photon with charged particles. Applying scattering theory and classical electrodynamics is the most reliable way to solve this problem. The main intention of this paper is to reveal the electromagnetic structure of a single photon. It establishes the formulas for the Poynting vector (energy flow vector) and the energy density. Applying the new explanation of Compton wavelength creates the probability form...
Open Access Library J.   Vol.8, 2021
Doi:10.4236/oalib.1107179


Dec 08, 2020Open    AccessArticle

Fundamental Concepts of Quantum Theories

Eliahu Comay
The foundations of the mathematical structure of quantum theories of a massive particle are the basis of this analysis. It proves the coherence of the particle-wave duality of quantum theories and the principle of complementarity as well. Furthermore, the noncommutativity of Hermitian operators proves that quantum theories are inherently indeterministic. This feature does not deny the fact that the classical limit of quantum theories agrees with classical physics. It is also shown that the found...
Open Access Library J.   Vol.7, 2020
Doi:10.4236/oalib.1106970


Sep 21, 2020Open    AccessArticle

How to Detect Quantum (de Broglie) Waves

Carlos López
A very simple (therefore strong) argument, grounded in the action reaction principle, predicts the existence of isolated quantum, de Broglie waves. In this article I propose an experimental set up able to detect these quantum waves. As far as quantum waves are associated to any kind of elementary particles, massive or massless, charged or neutral, etc., its character is probably gravitational, i.e., they are micro-gravitational waves. The quantum wave is isolated when a particle can follow two (...
Open Access Library J.   Vol.7, 2020
Doi:10.4236/oalib.1106741


Aug 31, 2020Open    AccessArticle

A Critical Examination of Quantum Electrodynamics and Quantum Chromodynamics

E. Comay
Statements made by R. P. Feynman and M. Gell-Mann indicate that these persons have cast doubts on the veracity of Quantum Electrodynamics and Quantum Chromodynamics. An analysis of elements of these theories and an examination of well established experimental data substantiate their claims. The independent experimental examples that are discussed herein are known for decades. Unfortunately, these examples as well as their problematic aspects are ignored by the current mainstream literature
Open Access Library J.   Vol.7, 2020
Doi:10.4236/oalib.1106668


Aug 31, 2020Open    AccessArticle

Stochastic Quantum Hydrodynamic Model from the Dark Matter of Vacuum Fluctuations: The Langevin-Schr?dinger Equation and the Large-Scale Classical Limit

Simone Chiarelli, Piero Chiarelli
The work derives the quantum evolution in a fluctuating vacuum by introducing the related (dark) mass density noise into the Madelung quantum hydrodynamic model. The paper shows that the classical dynamics can spontaneously emerge on the cosmological scale allowing the realization of the classical system-environment super system. The work shows that the dark matter-induced noise is not spatially white and owns a well defined correlation function with the intrinsic vacuum physical length given by...
Open Access Library J.   Vol.7, 2020
Doi:10.4236/oalib.1106659


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