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Feb 26, 2021Open    AccessArticle

The Size and Shape of a Single Photon

Zhenglong Xu
The size and shape of a single photon is a property of photon shown in the collision of the photon with charged particles. Applying scattering theory and classical electrodynamics is the most reliable way to solve this problem. The main intention of this paper is to reveal the electromagnetic structure of a single photon. It establishes the formulas for the Poynting vector (energy flow vector) and the energy density. Applying the new explanation of Compton wavelength creates the probability form...
Open Access Library J. Vol.8, 2021
Doi:10.4236/oalib.1107179


Dec 08, 2020Open    AccessArticle

Fundamental Concepts of Quantum Theories

Eliahu Comay
The foundations of the mathematical structure of quantum theories of a massive particle are the basis of this analysis. It proves the coherence of the particle-wave duality of quantum theories and the principle of complementarity as well. Furthermore, the noncommutativity of Hermitian operators proves that quantum theories are inherently indeterministic. This feature does not deny the fact that the classical limit of quantum theories agrees with classical physics. It is also shown that the found...
Open Access Library J. Vol.7, 2020
Doi:10.4236/oalib.1106970


Sep 21, 2020Open    AccessArticle

How to Detect Quantum (de Broglie) Waves

Carlos López
A very simple (therefore strong) argument, grounded in the action reaction principle, predicts the existence of isolated quantum, de Broglie waves. In this article I propose an experimental set up able to detect these quantum waves. As far as quantum waves are associated to any kind of elementary particles, massive or massless, charged or neutral, etc., its character is probably gravitational, i.e., they are micro-gravitational waves. The quantum wave is isolated when a particle can follow two (...
Open Access Library J. Vol.7, 2020
Doi:10.4236/oalib.1106741


Aug 31, 2020Open    AccessArticle

A Critical Examination of Quantum Electrodynamics and Quantum Chromodynamics

E. Comay
Statements made by R. P. Feynman and M. Gell-Mann indicate that these persons have cast doubts on the veracity of Quantum Electrodynamics and Quantum Chromodynamics. An analysis of elements of these theories and an examination of well established experimental data substantiate their claims. The independent experimental examples that are discussed herein are known for decades. Unfortunately, these examples as well as their problematic aspects are ignored by the current mainstream literature
Open Access Library J. Vol.7, 2020
Doi:10.4236/oalib.1106668


Aug 31, 2020Open    AccessArticle

Stochastic Quantum Hydrodynamic Model from the Dark Matter of Vacuum Fluctuations: The Langevin-Schr?dinger Equation and the Large-Scale Classical Limit

Simone Chiarelli, Piero Chiarelli
The work derives the quantum evolution in a fluctuating vacuum by introducing the related (dark) mass density noise into the Madelung quantum hydrodynamic model. The paper shows that the classical dynamics can spontaneously emerge on the cosmological scale allowing the realization of the classical system-environment super system. The work shows that the dark matter-induced noise is not spatially white and owns a well defined correlation function with the intrinsic vacuum physical length given by...
Open Access Library J. Vol.7, 2020
Doi:10.4236/oalib.1106659


Aug 20, 2020Open    AccessArticle

Logistic Approach to COVID-19 Epidemic Evolution in Brazil

Altair Souza de Assis, Vinicius Werneck de Carvalho
We present in this paper the temporal evolution of the contaminated population by coronavirus in Brazil and globally. We access those information analytically and numerically using a logistic model. Using the COVID-19 data from The Brazilian Ministry of Health (MS), from The World Health Organization—WHO, and from The Niteroi Health Foundation (FMS), we plot the curves for the contaminated population ramping-up, the population inflection, and the population saturation-plateau regime. Based on th...
Open Access Library J. Vol.7, 2020
Doi:10.4236/oalib.1106600


Jun 30, 2020Open    AccessArticle

The Alfven Wave Zoo

A. S. de Assis, C. E. da Silva, V. J. O. Werneck de Carvalho
It has been shown that a variety of names are assigned to the original MHD Alfven wave derived originally by Hannes Alfven in the 40s (Nature 150, 405-406 (1942)), and those names are used due to the different magnetic geometries where the target plasma could be confined, that is, in laboratory, in fusion, in space, and in astrophysics, where one could use as working geometry systems such as cartesian, cylindrical, toroidal, dipolar, and even more complex ones. We also show that different names ...
Open Access Library J. Vol.7, 2020
Doi:10.4236/oalib.1106378


May 12, 2020Open    AccessArticle

Remarks on the Order of Quantum Equations of Motion

Eliahu Comay
The paper examines the Dirac-Pauli differences concerning the order of the primary differential equation of an elementary massive quantum particle. The analysis relies on several self-evident constraints that an acceptable quantum theory must satisfy, like conservation laws, compatibility with Maxwellian electrodynamics and the correspondence principle. The dimension of the quantum function that is used in the Lagrangian density of a given quantum theory together with the corresponding different...
Open Access Library J. Vol.7, 2020
Doi:10.4236/oalib.1106335


Apr 15, 2020Open    AccessArticle

The Significance of an Unnoticed Theoretical Element

Eliahu Comay
Relativistic properties of a Lagrangian density are compared with those of a Hamiltonian density. It is proved that a Lagrangian density and a Hamiltonian density undergo different Lorentz transformations. This outcome is a theoretical element that has been unnoticed for a very long time. It is also proved that this theoretical element plays a crucial role in the structure of weak interactions theory. In particular, it is shown that the theory that uses this element is overwhelmingly superior ov...
Open Access Library J. Vol.7, 2020
Doi:10.4236/oalib.1106262


Mar 09, 2020Open    AccessArticle

The Electromagnetic Unification of Gravitational Force by Chinese

Zi-Jian Cai
In the recent book “Electromagnetic Unification of Four Forces” (ISBN978-3- 659-76798-2), it was compiled the relevant progressions made by the world people in television while led notably by me and the Members in satellite networks from China, India and USA. It was the author Zi-Jian Cai and European people in television who proposed the gravitational mass of particle as the spatially localized electromagnetic structure, different from the Yang-Mills equation to unify the charge with field. Lat...
Open Access Library J. Vol.7, 2020
Doi:10.4236/oalib.1106175


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