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May 07, 2024Open Access
What is the universe made of? The universe is made of atoms (and vacuum). The basic atom is the Hydrogen atom with one proton in its nucleus and one electron orbiting the electron cloud. This basic Hydrogen atom is called Protium. Protium atoms were created at the Big Bang explosion. Protons, neutrons, and electrons are assumed in this paper to be made of quarks. Three types of quarks are considered: up quark, strange quark, and down quark. Protons are assumed to be made of one up quark and one ...
Sep 07, 2023Open Access
This work presents novel hydrodynamic formulations that reconcile the continuum hypothesis with the emergence of electromagnetic interactions among molecules from fundamental principles. Two models are proposed: a relativistic version of the NavierStokes equations derived from commutation relations, and a Helmholtzlike system obtained by applying the Hodge operator to the extended NavierStokes equations. Preliminary analysis suggests that the second model, with its nonlinear terms serving as ...
Aug 23, 2023Open Access
Here we continue the discussion of the nature of elementary particles based on the theory of electrodynamics (generalized Maxwell equations [1]). As is noted in [1], such a theory should exist because photons partake in a variety of reactions in which they turn elementary particles into particles of other forms while having the property of being a quantum of an electromagnetic field. Unlike the widely accepted theory of point particles, we propose that particles are not “elementary” particles (...
Apr 13, 2023Open Access
The observed angular distribution data of deuteron elastic and inelastic scattering from ^{58}Ni at 170 MeV, ^{70,72}Ge, ^{90}Zr, ^{116}Sn at 171 MeV and ^{208}Pb at 86 MeV are analyzed within the optical model framework. The real and imaginary parts of the optical potentials were calculated using the double folding procedure with a B3YFetal effective interaction. The obtained potentials are fitted with appropriate WoodsSaxon form factors and introduced ...
Mar 31, 2023Open Access
This paper deals with the model of the evolution of the Universe proposed by Lemaitre: when the universe expands, the concentration of particles—galaxies declines, and when the universe contracts, the concentration of particles—galaxies increases. The solutions of the corresponding differential equations represent integrals from soliton functions satisfying the EulerLagrange equation. This means that the evolution of the universe, which occurs both with its expansion and contraction, is an opti...
Mar 01, 2023Open Access
It has to be noted that Albert Einstein used the extremal property of geodesic line when developing the general theory of relativity (GTR). In the following years, after the development of the GTR, it became known that the expression for a geodesic line can be replaced by the EulerLagrange equation. In the present work, the extremal property of the separatrix of a mathematical pendulum is used to develop a new approach to the general theory of relativity. The pendulum separatrix satisfies the E...
Dec 08, 2022Open Access
In order to create a model for the formation of dark matter in the universe, the displacement equation is used for changing the state of an elastic medium in a linear approximation. A localized microparticle located in the pregalactic space is characterized by a point inclusion defect, i.e. center of dilation. Dilation is modeled by using divergence. Attention is drawn to the relation, according to which the value of the Burgers vector is defined as the circulation of the displacement different...
Aug 04, 2022Open Access
This work defined the concept of entropy for states of a quantum system and built a stochastic model of a dynamic closed quantum system. This paper also is considered new approaches to the concepts of statistics and spin of elementary particles.
May 30, 2022Open Access
Studies concerning induced heat transfer by the condensation in forced convection of a thin film of a saturated vapor in medium porous, have received particular attention because of their numerous applications in various fields of technology. Thus, the presence of a layer of porous material on a plane wall generates an increase in heat transfer compared with that observed for a flat plate, subject to the same aeraulic and thermal conditions. This prompted us, given the large field of application...
Oct 21, 2021Open Access
This paper introduces a new way to calculate gravity force from mass total energy, instead of from matter of mass. By introducing total energy (E1 and E2) of the two objects into Newton’s gravitational theory, Newton’s gravitational formula can be modified from F = GM _{1}M _{2}/r ^{2} as F = GE _{1}E _{2}/(C ^{4}r ^{2}). E _{1} and E _{2} are the total energy of the two objects and C is the light speed. Then this formula can be furt...
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