Sep 27, 2020Open AccessArticle
Our best understanding of how the known elementary particles and three of the forces (electromagnetic, weak and strong) are related to each other and explain the nature and behavior of matter is encapsulated in the Standard Model of particle physics. However, the Standard Model is incomplete as it fails to explain a number of phenomena. The Standard Model relies on a set of elementary particles which are also known to be incomplete. This paper presents a complete set of elementary particles to s...
Mar 09, 2020Open AccessArticle
In the recent book “Electromagnetic Unification of Four Forces” (ISBN978-3- 659-76798-2), it was compiled the relevant progressions made by the world people in television while led notably by me and the Members in satellite networks from China, India and USA. It was the author Zi-Jian Cai and European people in television who proposed the gravitational mass of particle as the spatially localized electromagnetic structure, different from the Yang-Mills equation to unify the charge with field. Lat...
Feb 17, 2020Open AccessArticle
In the previous article on Symmetric Theory, it was shown that Planck particle is a symmetric particle, in the condition of gravito-electro-magnetic unification. The domain of this particle is the vacuum, in which it governs coupled with the positive-negative dipole, thereby constituting the medium Planck. In order for the theory to be further developed, it will be shown that the medium Planck, descr
Nov 22, 2019Open AccessArticle
This paper attempts to reason about the propositions of photons and its movement in space according to the known axiom of the definition, and by some simple logical method. The light is by the space motion photon component. The space motion photon has the energy and the quality. Photon in space along straight line direction movement speed identically equal in c. A photon moves in space with uniform helical motion, which is a combi
Sep 19, 2019Open AccessArticle
The paper was based on the definition of time-rate, and founded the general transformation between reference systems that background had different standard of time, and the self-consistent theoretical system has been formed to promote the classical electrodynamics. According to the principle, more discussion about the relationship between structure of time-rate in space and physical properties
Jul 18, 2019Open AccessArticle
The significance of the correspondence between the classical limit of quantum theories and the laws of classical physics is explained. It is proved that this correspondence yields constraints on acceptable quantum theories. The variational principle is taken as the basis of the analysis. The discussion shows that the first order Dirac equation abides by these constraints, whereas second order quantum equations fail to do that.
Jun 14, 2019Open AccessArticle
The present study deals with spatially homogeneous and anisotropic Bianchi Type-V universe filled with interacting dark matter and holographic dark energy. The exact solutions of Einstein’s equations are obtained by using the variable deceleration parameter in the form a(t)=(sinh(at))1/n (Chawla et al. ). The physical properties of the model are obtained and discussed in details.
Apr 10, 2019Open AccessArticle
From the “Decreasing Universe” model, establishing the contraction of space tissue when exposed to a gravitational field, we derive the Hubble Law and, from there, we will explain the effects “Dark Energy” and “Dark Matter”.
Nov 19, 2018Open AccessArticle
The Lienard-Wiechert 4-potential depends on local coordinates and on retarded coordinates of a charge at the source. Therefore, the 4-potential of incoming radiation fields (namely, a photon) cannot be written as a 4-vector which satisfies the locality requirement of fields of a Lagrangian density. This unsolvable problem is the underlying reason for the extremely unusual phenomenon where respectable textbooks make
Oct 31, 2018Open AccessArticle
The model of spacetime dynamics proposed here specifies how spacetime emerges, how changes of spacetime propagate, and how changes in spacetime arising from multiple sources accumulate. The overall goal of the model was to achieve maximum compatibility with general relativity and with Einstein’s equation; this goal appears to be achievable except at very small scales, where the discreteness of the units of space matters. The eleme