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Apr 25, 2022Open AccessArticle
In this article, it is shown that if a particle is at rest and has some harmonic oscillation, then a traveling particle with a constant speed corresponds to a De Broglie Wave. In 1924, De Broglie proposed that particles of matter exhibit wave like behavior, the expression for which became fundamental in the creation of wave mechanics (quantum mechanics). The main equation for this is the Schrödinger equation, which in the case of free motion of a particle becomes the expression for the De B...
Jan 13, 2022Open AccessArticle
The original online version of this article (Liu, J.C. (2016) A Cosmological Model and Modifications to Einstein’s Theory of Relativity. Open Access Library Journal, 3: e2394. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1102394) unfortunately contains some mistakes. The author wishes to correct the errors in the following version.
Dec 28, 2021Open AccessArticle
Stars are light years away, and their brightness depends on multiple variables. Starting in the 20th century, artificial satellites were launched that added to the bright bodies of the observable sky. From 26.816 satellite observations and 9.037 stars visible to the naked eye, regression models were made between brightness and distances. The existence of a visual convergence plane that receives light photons arriving with a delay, c = 299.792.458 m·s ^{1} was assumed. Under the principle...
Oct 21, 2021Open AccessArticle
This paper introduces a new way to calculate gravity force from mass total energy, instead of from matter of mass. By introducing total energy (E1 and E2) of the two objects into Newton’s gravitational theory, Newton’s gravitational formula can be modified from F = GM _{1}M _{2}/r ^{2} as F = GE _{1}E _{2}/(C ^{4}r ^{2}). E _{1} and E _{2} are the total energy of the two objects and C is the light speed. Then this formula can be furt...
Sep 27, 2020Open AccessArticle
Our best understanding of how the known elementary particles and three of the forces (electromagnetic, weak and strong) are related to each other and explain the nature and behavior of matter is encapsulated in the Standard Model of particle physics. However, the Standard Model is incomplete as it fails to explain a number of phenomena. The Standard Model relies on a set of elementary particles which are also known to be incomplete. This paper presents a complete set of elementary particles to s...
Mar 09, 2020Open AccessArticle
In the recent book “Electromagnetic Unification of Four Forces” (ISBN9783 659767982), it was compiled the relevant progressions made by the world people in television while led notably by me and the Members in satellite networks from China, India and USA. It was the author ZiJian Cai and European people in television who proposed the gravitational mass of particle as the spatially localized electromagnetic structure, different from the YangMills equation to unify the charge with field. Lat...
Feb 17, 2020Open AccessArticle
In the previous article on Symmetric Theory, it was shown that Planck particle is a symmetric particle, in the condition of gravitoelectromagnetic unification. The domain of this particle is the vacuum, in which it governs coupled with the positivenegative dipole, thereby constituting the medium Planck. In order for the theory to be further developed, it will be shown that the medium Planck, descr ...
Nov 22, 2019Open AccessArticle
This paper attempts to reason about the propositions of photons and its movement in space according to the known axiom of the definition, and by some simple logical method. The light is by the space motion photon component. The space motion photon has the energy and the quality. Photon in space along straight line direction movement speed identically equal in c. A photon moves in space with uniform helical motion, which is a combi ...
Sep 19, 2019Open AccessArticle
The paper was based on the definition of timerate, and founded the general transformation between reference systems that background had different standard of time, and the selfconsistent theoretical system has been formed to promote the classical electrodynamics. According to the principle, more discussion about the relationship between structure of timerate in space and physical properties ...
Jul 18, 2019Open AccessArticle
The significance of the correspondence between the classical limit of quantum theories and the laws of classical physics is explained. It is proved that this correspondence yields constraints on acceptable quantum theories. The variational principle is taken as the basis of the analysis. The discussion shows that the first order Dirac equation abides by these constraints, whereas second order quantum equations fail to do that. ...
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