OALib Journal
  OALib Journal is an all-in-one open access journal (ISSN Print: 2333-9705, ISSN Online: 2333-9721). It accepts a manuscript for the peer-review processing, typesetting, publication and then allocated to one of the 322 subject areas. The article processing charge for publishing in OALib journal is Only $99. For more details, please contact service@oalib.com. Submit now
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Sep 27, 2020Open    AccessArticle

A Complete Set of 22 Elementary Particles for an Expanded Standard Model (Version 2)

Daniel E. Friedmann
Our best understanding of how the known elementary particles and three of the forces (electromagnetic, weak and strong) are related to each other and explain the nature and behavior of matter is encapsulated in the Standard Model of particle physics. However, the Standard Model is incomplete as it fails to explain a number of phenomena. The Standard Model relies on a set of elementary particles which are also known to be incomplete. This paper presents a complete set of elementary particles to s...
Open Access Library J. Vol.7, 2020
Doi:10.4236/oalib.1106715


Mar 09, 2020Open    AccessArticle

The Electromagnetic Unification of Gravitational Force by Chinese

Zi-Jian Cai
In the recent book “Electromagnetic Unification of Four Forces” (ISBN978-3- 659-76798-2), it was compiled the relevant progressions made by the world people in television while led notably by me and the Members in satellite networks from China, India and USA. It was the author Zi-Jian Cai and European people in television who proposed the gravitational mass of particle as the spatially localized electromagnetic structure, different from the Yang-Mills equation to unify the charge with field. Lat...
Open Access Library J. Vol.7, 2020
Doi:10.4236/oalib.1106175


Feb 17, 2020Open    AccessArticle

Symmetric Theory Planck Gas

Giuseppe Azzarello

In the previous article on Symmetric Theory, it was shown that Planck particle is a symmetric particle, in the condition of gravito-electro-magnetic unification. The domain of this particle is the vacuum, in which it governs coupled with the positive-negative dipole, thereby constituting the medium Planck. In order for the theory to be further developed, it will be shown that the medium Planck, descr

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Open Access Library J. Vol.7, 2020
Doi:10.4236/oalib.1106068


Nov 22, 2019Open    AccessArticle

Hypothesis about the Motion of Photon in the Space

Jinjun Cheng
This paper attempts to reason about the propositions of photons and its movement in space according to the known axiom of the definition, and by some simple logical method. The light is by the space motion photon component. The space motion photon has the energy and the quality. Photon in space along straight line direction movement speed identically equal in c. A photon moves in space with uniform helical motion, which is a combi
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Open Access Library J. Vol.6, 2019
Doi:10.4236/oalib.1105907


Sep 19, 2019Open    AccessArticle

The Relevant Inferences of Electrodynamics under Non-Void Backgrounds

An He
The paper was based on the definition of time-rate, and founded the general transformation between reference systems that background had different standard of time, and the self-consistent theoretical system has been formed to promote the classical electrodynamics. According to the principle, more discussion about the relationship between structure of time-rate in space and physical properties
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Open Access Library J. Vol.6, 2019
Doi:10.4236/oalib.1105713


Jul 18, 2019Open    AccessArticle

Hamiltonian, Lagrangian and Physical Laws

E. Comay
The significance of the correspondence between the classical limit of quantum theories and the laws of classical physics is explained. It is proved that this correspondence yields constraints on acceptable quantum theories. The variational principle is taken as the basis of the analysis. The discussion shows that the first order Dirac equation abides by these constraints, whereas second order quantum equations fail to do that.
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Open Access Library J. Vol.6, 2019
Doi:10.4236/oalib.1105536


Jun 14, 2019Open    AccessArticle

Interacting Holographic Dark Energy in Bianchi Type-V Universe with Variable Deceleration Parameter

Vijay G. Mete, Vaibhav D. Bokey, Vasant S. Bawane
The present study deals with spatially homogeneous and anisotropic Bianchi Type-V universe filled with interacting dark matter and holographic dark energy. The exact solutions of Einstein’s equations are obtained by using the variable deceleration parameter in the form a(t)=(sinh(at))1/n (Chawla et al. [1]). The physical properties of the model are obtained and discussed in details.
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Open Access Library J. Vol.6, 2019
Doi:10.4236/oalib.1105498


Apr 10, 2019Open    AccessArticle

Derivation of Hubble’s Law and the End of the Darks Elements

Joao Carlos Holland de Barcellos
From the “Decreasing Universe” model, establishing the contraction of space tissue when exposed to a gravitational field, we derive the Hubble Law and, from there, we will explain the effects “Dark Energy” and “Dark Matter”.
Open Access Library J. Vol.6, 2019
Doi:10.4236/oalib.1105338


Nov 19, 2018Open    AccessArticle

The Rise and Fall of the Electromagnetic 4-Potential

Eliahu Comay
The Lienard-Wiechert 4-potential depends on local coordinates and on retarded coordinates of a charge at the source. Therefore, the 4-potential of incoming radiation fields (namely, a photon) cannot be written as a 4-vector which satisfies the locality requirement of fields of a Lagrangian density. This unsolvable problem is the underlying reason for the extremely unusual phenomenon where respectable textbooks make
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Open Access Library J. Vol.5, 2018
Doi:10.4236/oalib.1104979


Oct 31, 2018Open    AccessArticle

A Local Causal Model of Spacetime Dynamics

Hans Diel
The model of spacetime dynamics proposed here specifies how spacetime emerges, how changes of spacetime propagate, and how changes in spacetime arising from multiple sources accumulate. The overall goal of the model was to achieve maximum compatibility with general relativity and with Einstein’s equation; this goal appears to be achievable except at very small scales, where the discreteness of the units of space matters. The eleme
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Open Access Library J. Vol.5, 2018
Doi:10.4236/oalib.1104957


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