All Title Author
Keywords Abstract

Publish in OALib Journal
ISSN: 2333-9721
APC: Only $99


Enhanced Removal of Pb(II), Cd(II), and Zn(II) Ions from Aqueous Solutions Using EDTA-Synthesized Activated Carbon Derived from Sawdust

DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1110690, PP. 1-15

Subject Areas: Food Science & Technology, Environmental Chemistry, Environmental Sciences, Toxicology

Keywords: Adsorption, Heavy Metals Ions, Isotherms, SEM, Sawdust-Synthesized with EDTA

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib


EDTA synthesized activated carbon derived from sawdust, was utilized as adsorbent for the removal of Pb(II), Cd(II) and Zn(II) ions from aqueous solutions. The adsorptive characteristics and elemental composition of this activated carbon were studied using SEM and EDX techniques respectively, the analysis revealed that SAC-EDTA contained 71.95% by weight of carbon contents which are requisites for the high adsorption capacity. The effect of initial metals ions concentration, adsorbent dose, contact time, and solution pH were examined at equilibrium for optimum values, experimental data were also fitted into two different isotherms: Langmuir and Freundlich, to establish the best fit for the adsorption process. From the results, the studied metals ions were best described by Langmuir with maximum monolayer coverage (qmax) of 89.29 mg·g-1 for Pb(II), 60.24 mg·g-1 for Zn(II) and 47.85 mg·g-1 for Cd(II), and R2 value of 0. 981, 0.9732 and 0.9605 respectively. The Freundlich isotherm also gave a favourable performance with Kf values of 16.43, 11.98 and 10.21 mg·g-1L1/n·mg-1/n, and R2 values of 0.9919, 0.9867 and 0.9797 respectively. Therefore, this study demonstrates that SAC-EDTA adsorbent could be used to adsorb heavy metals in our environment. Hence, the order of adsorption affinity is Pb2 > Zn2 > Cd2 .

Cite this paper

Okpara, O. G. , Ogbeide, O. M. , Nworu, J. N. , Chukwuekeh, J. I. , Igoche, S. A. , Alichi, F. S. and Orinya, O. E. (2023). Enhanced Removal of Pb(II), Cd(II), and Zn(II) Ions from Aqueous Solutions Using EDTA-Synthesized Activated Carbon Derived from Sawdust. Open Access Library Journal, 10, e690. doi:


[1]  Rodriguez-Mirasol, J., Gonzalez-Serrano, E., Cordero, T., Cotoruelo, L. and Rodriguez, J.J. (2004) Removal of Water Pollutants with Activated Carbons Prepared from H3PO4 Activation of Lignin from Kraft Black Liquors. Water Research, 38, 3043-3050.
[2]  Ghazi, M.B.H.I., Ngai, C.W., Abdul, H.R. and Azazi, N.Z. (2013) Freundlich Isotherm Equilibrium Equastions in Determining Effectiveness a Low Cost Absorbent to Heavy Metal Removal in Wastewater (Leachate) at Teluk Kitang Landfill, Pengkalan Chepa, Kelantan, Malaysia. Journal of Geography and Earth Science, 1, 1-8.
[3]  Shafiq, M., Alazba, A.A. and Amin, M.T. (2018) Removal of Heavy Metals from Wastewater Using Date Palm as a Biosorbent: A Comparative Review. Sains Malaysiana, 47, 35-49.
[4]  Ghazi, Z.A., Khattak, A.M., Iqbal, R., Ahmad, R., Khan, A.A., Usman, M., Nawaz, F., Ali, W., Felegari, Z., Jan, S.U., Iqbal, A. and Ahmad, A. (2018) Adsorptive Removal of Cd2 from Aqueous Solutions by a Highly Stable Covalent Triazine-Based Framework. New Journal of Chemistry, 42, 10234-10242.
[5]  Ogbeide, O.M., Ezeh, E.E. and Okpara, O.G. (2019) Isotherms, Kinetics and Equilibrium Studies of Adsorption of Lead (II) Ions from Aqueous Solutions Using Polymer-Modified Coconut Shell Activated Carbon (MCSAC). IOSR Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology, 13, 28-43.
[6]  Ceribasi, H.I. and Yetis U. (2001) Biosorption of Ni (II) and Pb (II) by Phanaerochate chrysosporium from a Binary Metal System-Kinetics. Water SA, 27, 15-20.
[7]  Okpara, O.G., Ogbeide, O.M., Ezeh, E.C., Chukwuekeh, J.I., Nwankwo, O.D. and Igwilo, C.N. (2020) Kinetic and Thermodynamic Studies on Adsorption of Lead (II) Ions from Aqueous Solutions Using Polymer-Modified Coconut Shell Activated Carbon (MCSAC). International Journal of Chemical Science, 4, 1-8.
[8]  Hameed, B.H., Tan, I.A. and Ahmad, A.L. (2009) Preparation of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch-Based Activated Carbon for Removal of 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol: Optimization Using Response Surface Methodology. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 164, 1316-1324.
[9]  Mohan, D., Singh, K.P. and Singh, V.K. (2008) Wastewater Treatment Using Low Cost Activated Carbons Derived from Agricultural Byproducts—A Case Study. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 152, 1045-1053.
[10]  Eruola, A.O. and Ogunyemi, I.O. (2014) Evaluation of the Adsorption Capacity of the Coconut Shell and Palm-Kernel Shell Adsorbents Powder for the Sorption of Cadmium (11) Ions from Aqueous Solution. IOSR Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology, 8, 55-63.
[11]  Mandina, S., Chigondo, F., Shumba, M., Nyamunda, B.C. and Sebata, E. (2013) Removal of Chromium (VI) from Aqueous Solution Using Chemically Modified Orange (Citrus sinensis) Peel. IOSR Journal of Applied Chemistry, 6, 66-75.
[12]  Rashed, M.N. (2013) Adsorption Technique for the Removal of Organic Pollutants from Water and Wastewater. In: Rashed, M.N., Ed., Organic Pollutants-Monitoring, Risk and Treatment, IntechOpen, London, 168-194.
[13]  Igwe, J.C. and Abia, A.A. (2003) Maize Cob and Husk as Adsorbents for Removal of Cadmium, Lead and Zinc Ions from Wastewater. The Physical Scientist, 2, 210-215.
[14]  Igwe, J.C., Okpereke, O.C. and Abia, A.A. (2005) Sorption Kinetics and Intraparticulate Diffusivities of Co, Fe, and Cu, Ions on EDTA Modified Maize Cob. Indian Journal of Chemistry, 15, 187-191.
[15]  Abia, A.A., Horsefall, Jr.M. and Didi, O. (2003) The Use of Chemically Modified and Unmodified Cassava Waste for the Removal of Cd, Cu and Zn Ions from Aqueous Solution. Bioresource Technology, 90, 345-348.
[16]  Horsfall, M.J., Abia, A.A. and Spiff, A.I. (2003) Removal of Cu (II) and Zn (II) Ions from Wastewater by Cassava (Manihot esculenta Cranz) Waste Biomass. African Journal of Biotechnology, 2, 360-364.
[17]  Basu, M., Guha, A.K. and Ray, L. (2017) Adsorption of Lead on Cucumber Peel. Journal of Cleaner Production, 151, 603-615.
[18]  Igwe, J.C., Nwokennaya, E.C. and Abia, A.A. (2005) The Role of pH in Heavy Metal Detoxification by Bio-Sorption from Aqueous Solutions Containing Chelating Agents. African Journal of Biotechnology, 4, 1109-1112.
[19]  Lim, J., Kang, H.M., Kim, L.H. and Ko, S.O. (2008) Removal of Heavy Metals by Sawdust Adsorption: Equilibrium and Kinetic Studies. Environmental Engineering Research, 13, 79-84.
[20]  Jang, A., Seo, Y. and Bishop, P.L. (2005) The Removal of Heavy Metals in Urban Runoff by Sorption on Mulch. Environmental Pollution, 133, 117-127.
[21]  Vijayaraghavan, K., Jegan, J., Palanivelu, K. and Velan, M. (2005) Biosorption of Copper, Cobalt and Nickel by Mirine Green Alga Ulva Reticulate in a Packed Column. Chemosphere, 60, 419-426.
[22]  Ekpete, O.A., Kpee, F., Amadi, J.C. and Rotimi, R.B. (2010) Adsorption of Chromium (VI) and Zinc (II) Ions on the Skin of Orange Peels (Citrus sinensis). Journal of Nepal Chemical Society, 26, 31-39.
[23]  El-Sayed, G.O., Yehia, M.M. and Asaad, A.A. (2014) Assessment of Activated Carbon Prepared from Corncob by Chemical Activation with Phosphoric Acid. Water Resources and Industry, 7-8, 66-75.
[24]  Kalavathy, M.H., Karthikeyan, T., Rajgopal, S. and Miranda, L.R. (2005) Kinetic and Isotherm Studies of Cu (II) Adsorption onto H3PO4-Activated Rubber Wood Sawdust. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 292, 54-362.
[25]  Yu, B., Zhang, Y., Shukla, A., Shukla, S.S. and Dorris, K.L. (2001) The Removal of Heavy Metals from Aqueous Solutions by Sawdust Adsorption—Removal of Lead and Comparison of Its Adsorption with Copper. Journal of Hazardous Materials B, 84, 83-94.
[26]  Taty-Costodes, V.C., Fauduet, H., Porte, C. and Delacroix, A. (2003) Removal of Cd (II) and Pb (II) Ions, from Aqueous Solutions, by Adsorption onto Sawdust of Pinus sylvestris. Journal of Hazardous Materials B, 105, 121-142.
[27]  Taty-Costodes, V.C., Fauduet, H., Porte, C. and Ho, Y.S. (2005) Removal of Lead (II) Ions from Synthetic and Real Effluent Using Immobilized Pinus sylvestris Sawdust: Adsorption on a Fixed-Bed Column. Journal of Hazardous Materials B, 123, 135-144.
[28]  Nwufo, B.T., Isaac, N.D. and Onche, E.U. (2014) Preparation and Characterization of Sawdust (Cellulose) as an Adsorbent for Oil Pollution Remediation. International Journal of Natural Science Research, 2, 97-102.
[29]  Singh, J., Mishra, N.S., Banerjee, U.S. and Sharma, Y.C. (2011) Comparative Studies of Physical Characteristics of Raw and Modified Sawdust for Their Use as Adsorbents for Removal of Acid Dye. Bioresources, 6, 2732-2743.
[30]  Rajak, V.K., Kumar, S., Thombre, N.V. and Mandal, A. (2018) Synthesis of Activated Charcoal from Saw-Dust and Characterization for Adsorptive Separation of Oil from Oil-in-Water Emulsion. Chemical Engineering Communications, 205, 897-913.
[31]  El-Saied, F.A., Abo-Elenan, S.A. and El-shinawy, F.H. (2017) Removal of Lead and Copper Ions from Polluted Aqueous Solutions Using Nano-Sawdust Particles. International Journal of Waste Resources, 7, Article ID: 1000305.
[32]  Kong, S., Kamga, E.T., Fossog, V. and Nanseu-Njiki, C.P. (2016) Removal of Mercury (II) from Aqueous Solution by Modified Triplochyton scleroxylon Sawdust. Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 8, 342-353.
[33]  Oviedo, C. and Rodríguez, J. (2003) EDTA: The Chelating Agent under Environmental Scrutiny. Química Nova, 26, 901-905.
[34]  Pam, A.A., Abdullah, A.H., Ping, T.Y. and Zainal, Z. (2018) Batch and Fixed Bed Adsorption of Pb (II) from Aqueous Solution Using EDTA Modified Activated Carbon Derived from Palm Kernel Shell. Bioresources, 13, 1235-1250.
[35]  Bello, O.S., Adelaide, O.M., Hammed, M.A, and Popoola, O.M.M. (2010) Kinetic and Equilibrium Studies of Methylene Blue Removal from Aqueous Solution by Adsorption on Treated Sawdust. Macedonian Journal of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, 29, 77-85.
[36]  Haghseresht, F. and Lu, G. (1998) Adsorption Characteristics of Phenolic Compounds onto Coal-Reject-Derived Adsorbents. Energy Fuels, 12, 1100-1107.
[37]  Okpara, O.G., Ogbeide, O.M., Ike, O.C., Menechukwu, K.C. and Ejike, E.C. (2020) Optimum Isotherm by Linear and Nonlinear Regression Methods for Lead (II) Ions Adsorption from Aqueous Solutions Using Synthesized Coconut Shell-Activated Carbon (SCSAC). Toxin Reviews, 40, 901-914.
[38]  Haider, S. and Park, S.Y. (2009) Preparation of the Electrospun Chitosan Nanofibers and Their Applications to the Adsorption of Cu (II) and Pb (II) Ions from an Aqueous Solution. Journal of Membrane Science, 328, 90-96.
[39]  Bello, O.S., Alabi, E.O., Adegoke, K.A., Adegboyega, S.A., Inyinbor, A.A. and Dada, A.O. (2020) Rhodamine B Dye Sequestration Using Gmelina aborea Leaf Powder. Heliyon, 6, e02872.
[40]  Kantasamy, N. and Siti, M.S. (2016) Equilibrium and Themodynamic Studies of Anionic Dyes Removal by an Anionic Clay-Layered Double Hydroxide. Malaysian Journal of Analytical Sciences, 20, 358-364.


comments powered by Disqus

Contact Us


WhatsApp +8615387084133

WeChat 1538708413