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Khat Chewing Induce Transient Elevation of Blood Pressure: By Using 24-Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring, in Yemen Republic

DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1110225, PP. 1-12

Subject Areas: Cardiology

Keywords: Khat Chewing, Systolic Blood Pressure, Diastolic Blood Pressure, Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring, Yemen

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Abstract

Background: Khat or Catha edulis is an indigenous plant in Yemen, Ethiopia and East Africa, which has sympathomimetic and euphoriant effects. It is chewed habitually by people for its pleasurable effect and it produces stimulant amphetamine-like effects. Aims: The main aim is to study the effects of khat chewing on blood pressure and heart rate by using ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM). Methods: This was a cross-sectional, observational study in a group of 255 individuals aged 18 - 70 who visited our cardiac center from May 1, 2021, to January 1, 2023, chewing or non-chewing khat, All individuals underwent 24 hours of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Result: 255 adults are included, 70.6% of whom were khat chewers and 29.4% of whom were non-chewers. The two groups were comparable in most characteristics, and there were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of age, sex, and body mass index but they were significantly different in smoking. Only automatic BP measurements of 4 hours during khat chewing and 4 hours post-khat chewing show significant differences between khat chewers and non-chewers on both systolic (146.2 ± 8.1) versus (128.9 ± 12.1) P < 0.001 and diastolic blood pressure (90.6 ± 6.5) versus (81.8 ± 6.8) P < 001, but no significant differences detected on 24-hour systolic blood pressure (24-H SBP), 24-hour diastolic blood pressure (24-H DBP), diurnal and nocturnal systolic and diastolic blood pressure between the two groups. Similarly, the mean 24-hour heart rate per minute was significantly higher among khat chewers, (89 ± 6) versus (74 ± 5) P < 0.05. Conclusion: Khat chewing is associated with a transient increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressure and a transient increase in heart rate as well. Other clinical factors, such as BMI and smoking were significantly associated with hypertension.

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Jayed, D. , Al-Huthi, M. A. , Al-Zandani, A. , Al-Shuki, S. , Al-Dholae, M. and Salah, M. K. (2023). Khat Chewing Induce Transient Elevation of Blood Pressure: By Using 24-Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring, in Yemen Republic. Open Access Library Journal, 10, e225. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1110225.

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