All Title Author
Keywords Abstract

Publish in OALib Journal
ISSN: 2333-9721
APC: Only $99

ViewsDownloads

The Review of Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis

DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1109296, PP. 1-12

Subject Areas: Nuclear Physics

Keywords: PGAA, Basic Principle, Analytical Methods, Applications

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib

Abstract

Prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) has the characteristics of high sensitivity and non-destructive analysis. At the same time, compared with neutron activation analysis, prompt gamma activation analysis requires less neutron flux and causes lower induced radioactivity to the sample. After a period of time, the radioactivity of the sample will be reduced to a natural level and can be used for other studies. Therefore, PGAA is also a suitable choice for some precious samples. PGAA has been applied in various fields, especially for the determination of light elements such as hydrogen, boron and other elements in large samples. At the same time, it also has non-destructive testing properties. It can be applied in various fields and has broad development prospects. Therefore, this paper summarizes the facilities and research profiles of PGAA system at home and abroad and its application profiles, understands the current development status of PGAA system, and lays a certain foundation for future research. The emphasis of this review is on laboratory measurements based on reactor neutron beam. The application of on-site prompt gamma activation analysis is not discussed in this paper. It is found that although PGAA can detect most of the elements on the periodic table, the detection sensitivity is lower than that of neutron activation analysis. The detection ability of the system can be improved by modifying the experimental facilities, such as shielding the background and using the anti-Kang spectrometer.

Cite this paper

Zhang, L. , Wu, P. and Zhang, W. (2022). The Review of Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis. Open Access Library Journal, 9, e9296. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1109296.

References

[1]  Fan, J., Xu, J. and Wang, C. (2020) Overview of Industrial Materials Detection Based on Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis Technology. World Journal of Engineering and Technology, 8, 389-404. https://doi.org/10.4236/wjet.2020.83030
[2]  Lindstrom, R.M. and Révay, Z. (2017) Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGAA): Recent Developments and Applications. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 314, 843-858. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10967-017-5483-8
[3]  Zhang, L., et al. (2005) Current Status and Development of Prompt γ-Ray Neutron Activation Analysis. Atomic Energy Science and Technology, 39, 282-288.
[4]  Sudarshan, K., et al. (2014) Application of k0-Based Internal Mono-Standard PGNAA for Compositional Characterization of Cement Samples. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 300, 1075-1080. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10967-014-3019-z
[5]  Révay, Z. and Kennedy, G. (2012) Application of the k0-Method in Neutron Activation Analysis and in Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis. Radiochimica Acta, 100, 687-698. https://doi.org/10.1524/ract.2012.1957
[6]  Wang, X., et al. (2014) Development and Current Status of PGNAA Methodology. Isotopes, 27, 251-256.
[7]  Baechler, S., Kudejova, P., Jolie, J., et al. (2003) The K0-Method in Cold-Neutron Prompt Gamma-Ray Activation Analysis. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 256, 239-245.
[8]  Li, D. (2006) Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis K0-Method and Its Application, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou.
[9]  Harrison, R.K. and Landsberger, S. (2009) Determination of Boron over a Large Dynamic Range by Prompt-Gamma Activation Analysis. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, 267, 513-518. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nimb.2008.11.057
[10]  Wang, X. (2015) Shielding Design and Simulation Calculation of PGNAA System Based on CARR Reactor, Chengdu University of Technology, Chengdu.
[11]  Yun, W., et al. (2019) CARR Cold Neutron Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis System Main Performance Test. Nuclear Electronics and Detection Technology, 39, 393-399.
[12]  Sun, H., et al. (2012) Preliminary Design of CARR Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis System. Isotope, 25, 182-188.
[13]  Yao, Y., et al. (2018) CARR Cold Neutron Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis System and Experimental Research. Isotope, 31, 362-369.
[14]  Hai, N.C., et al. (2019) Determination of Elemental Concentrations in Biological and Geological Samples Using PGNAA Facility at the Dalat Research Reactor. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 319, 1165-1171. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10967-018-06409-1
[15]  Molnár, G., et al. (1997) The New Prompt Gamma-Activation Analysis Facility at Budapest. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 215, 111-115. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02109886
[16]  Harling, O.K., Chabeuf, J.-M., Lambert, F. and Yasuda, G. (1993) A Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis Facility Using a Diffracted Beam. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, 83, 557-562. https://doi.org/10.1016/0168-583X(93)95887-B
[17]  Paul, R.L., Lindstrom, R.M., Brocker, C. and Mackey, E.A. (2008) Design of a New Instrument for Cold Neutron Prompt Gamma-Ray Activation Analysis at NIST. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 278, 697-701. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10967-008-1507-8
[18]  Yonezawa, C., Wood, A.K.H., Hoshi, M., Ito, Y. and Tachikawa, E. (1993) The Characteristics of the Prompt Gamma-Ray Analyzing System at the Neutron Beam Guides of JRR-3M. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, 329, 207-216. https://doi.org/10.1016/0168-9002(93)90938-E
[19]  Unlu, K., Rios-Martinez, C. and Wehring, B.W. (1995) Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis with the Texas Cold Neutron Source. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 193, 145-154. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02041928
[20]  Raja, S.W., Samanta, S.K., Sharm, V., Acharya, R. and Pujari, P.K. (2020) Application of PGNAA Utilizing Thermal Neutron Beam for Quantification of Boron Concentrations in Ceramic and Refractory Neutron Absorbers. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 325, 933-940. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10967-020-07136-2
[21]  Sun, G. and Park, B. (2013) Neutron Activation Analysis by Neutron Capture at HANARO: PGAA and NDP. Neutron News, 24, 36-38. https://doi.org/10.1080/10448632.2013.777647
[22]  Gonçalves-Carralves, M.L.S., et al. (2011) Development of a Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis Facility for 10B Concentration Measurements at RA-3: Design Stage. Applied Radiation and Isotopes, 69, 1928-1931. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apradiso.2011.02.026
[23]  Kudejova, P., et al. (2008) The New PGAA and PGAI Facility at the Research Reactor FRM II in Garching Near Munich. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 278, 691-695. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10967-008-1506-9
[24]  Khokhlov, V.F., et al. (2009) Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis of 10B and Gd in Biological Samples at the MEPhI Reactor. Applied Radiation and Isotopes, 67, S251-S253. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apradiso.2009.03.082
[25]  Robinson, J.A., Hartman, M.R. and Reese, S.R. (2010) Design, Construction and Characterization of a Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis Facility at the Oregon State University TRIGA® Reactor. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 283, 359-369. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10967-009-0358-2
[26]  Turkoglu, D., Burke, J., Lewan-Dowski, R. and Cao, L.R. (2012) Characterization of a New External Neutron Beam Facility at the Ohio State University. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 291, 321-327. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10967-011-1289-2
[27]  Guerra, B.T., Jacimovic, R., de Barros Correia Menezes, M.A. and Leal, A.S. (2013) Proposed Design for the PGAA Facility at the TRIGA IPR-R1 Research Reactor. SpringerPlus, 2, Article 597. https://doi.org/10.1186/2193-1801-2-597
[28]  El Amri, L., et al. (2021) Neutron Guide Optimization for the Moroccan PGAA System. Applied Radiation and Isotopes, 174, Article ID: 109783. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apradiso.2021.109783
[29]  Alvarez, E., Biegalski, S.R. and Landsberger, S. (2007) Methodologies for Hydrogen Determination in Metal Oxides by Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, 262, 333-339. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nimb.2007.06.004
[30]  Turkoglu, D., Chen-Mayer, H., Paul, R., et al. (2017) Assessment of PGAA Capability for Low-Level Measurements of H in Ti Alloys. Analyst, 142, 3822-3829.
[31]  Dorsey, D.J., Hebner, R. and Charlton, W.S. (2005) Application of Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis for the Determination of Water Content in Composite Materials. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 265, 315-319. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10967-005-0827-1
[32]  van den Berg, A.W.C., Pescarmona, P., Schoonman, J. and Jansen, J.C. (2007) High-Density Storage of H2 in Microporous Crystalline Silica at Ambient Conditions. Chemistry—A European Journal, 13, 3590-3595. https://doi.org/10.1002/chin.200728188
[33]  Cao, L.R., et al. (2010) Combinatorial Study of Thin Film Metal Hydride by Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 283, 63-68. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10967-009-0058-y
[34]  Aghara, S.K., Venkatraman, S., Manthiram, A. and Alvarez II, E. (2005) Investigation of Hydrogen Content in Chemically Delithiated lithiumIon Battery Cathodes Using Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 265, 321-328. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10967-005-0828-0
[35]  Couet, A., Motta, A.T. and Comstock, R.J. (2013) Effect of Alloying Elements on Hydrogen Pickup in Zirconium Alloys. 17th International Symposium on Zirconium in the Nuclear Industry, ASTM STP, Vol. 1543: 479-514.
[36]  Couet, A. (2011) Hydrogen Pick-Up in Zirconium Alloys. The Pennsylvania State University, 1-166.
[37]  Couet, A., Motta, A.T., Comstock, R.J. and Paul, R.L. (2012) Cold Neutron Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis, a Non-Destructive Technique for Hydrogen Level Assessment in Zirconium Alloys. Journal of Nuclear Materials, 425, 211-217. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnucmat.2011.06.044
[38]  Paul, R.L. (2017) Prompt Gamma-Ray Activation Analysis for Certification of Sulfur in Fuel Oil SRMs. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 311, 1149-1154. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10967-016-4935-x
[39]  Becker, D.A., et al. (1994) Use of INAA, PGAA, and RNAA to Determine 30 Elements for Certification of an SRM: Tomato Leaves, 157a. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 179, 149-154. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02037935
[40]  Vogt, J.R. and Schlegel, S.C. (1985) Elemental Determinations in NBS 1633A Fly Ash Standard Reference Material Using INAA and PGNAA. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 88, 379-387. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02037014
[41]  Sudarshan, K., et al. (2005) Analysis of Reference Materials by Prompt γ-Ray Neutron Activation Analysis and Evaluation of Sample-Dependent Background. Analytica Chimica Acta, 535, 309-315. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2004.11.056
[42]  Anderson, D.L., Cunningham, W.C. and Mackey, E.A. (1990) Determination of Boron in Food and Biological Reference Materials by Neutron Capture Prompt-? Activation. Fresenius Journal of Analytical Chemistry, 338, 554-558.
[43]  Martínez, M.I.V., Zeisler, R., De Nadai Fernandes, E.A., Bacchi, M.A. and Turkoglu, D.J. (2018) Characterization of an Innovative Sugarcane Leaves Reference Material by INAA and PGAA. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 318, 739-744. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10967-018-6162-0
[44]  Schmitz, T., et al. (2011) Determination of Boron Concentration in Blood and Tissue Samples from Patients with Liver Metastases of Colorectal Carcinoma Using Prompt Gamma Ray Activation Analysis (PGAA). Applied Radiation and Isotopes, 69, 936-941. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apradiso.2011.02.007
[45]  Schütz, C.L., et al. (2012) Intercomparison of Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry, Quantitative Neutron Capture Radiography, and Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis for the Determination of Boron in Biological Samples. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 404, 1887-1895. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00216-012-6329-4
[46]  Kasviki, K., Stamatelatos, I.E., Yannakopoulou, E., Papadopoulou, P. and Kalef-Ezra, J. (2007) On the Accuracy of Protein Determination in Large Biological Samples by Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, 263, 132-135. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nimb.2007.04.073
[47]  Cho, H.J., Chun, K.J., Park, K.W., Chung, Y.-S. and Kim, H.R. (2007) Determination of Boron in a Black Mouse by Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 272, 403-407. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10967-007-0536-z
[48]  Prudêncio, M.I., et al. (2016) PGAA, INAA and Luminescence to Trace the “History” of “The Panoramic View of Lisbon”: Lisbon before the Earthquake of 1755 in Painted Tiles (Portugal). Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 307, 541-547. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10967-015-4176-4
[49]  Constantinescu, B., et al. (2018) PIXE and PGAA-Complementary Methods for Studies on Ancient Glass Artefacts (from Byzantine, Late Medieval to Modern Murano Glass). Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, 417, 105-109. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nimb.2017.07.017
[50]  Schulze, R., et al. (2013) The ANCIENT CHARM Project at FRM II: Three Dimensional Elemental Mapping by Prompt Gamma Activation Imaging and Neutron Tomography. Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, 28, 1508-1512. https://doi.org/10.1039/c3ja50162k
[51]  Kasztovszky, Z., et al. (2007) Cold Neutron Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis—A Non-Destructive Method for Characterization of High Silica Content Chipped Stone Tools and Raw Materials. Archaeometry, 50, 12-29. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-4754.2007.00348.x
[52]  Marschall, H.R., Kasztovszky, Z., Gméling, K. and Altherr, R. (2005) Chemical Analysis of High-Pressure Metamorphic Rocks by PGNAA: Comparison with Results from XRF and Solution ICP-MS. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 265, 339-348. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10967-005-0830-6
[53]  Gméling, K., Simonits, A., Sziklai-László, I. and Párkányi, D. (2014) Comparative PGAA and NAA Results of Geological Samples and Standards. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 300, 507-516. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10967-014-3032-2
[54]  Shirai, N., Hozumi, T, Toh, Y. and Ebihara, M. (2020) Comparison of PGAA and Wet Chemical Analysis for Determining Major Element Contents in Eucritic Meteorites. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 325, 949-957. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10967-020-07273-8
[55]  Canella, L., Kudějová, P. Schulze, R., Türler, A. and Jolie, J. (2009) PGAA, PGAI and NT with Cold Neutrons: Test Measurement on a Meteorite Sample. Applied Radiation and Isotopes, 67, 2070-2074. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apradiso.2009.05.008

Full-Text


comments powered by Disqus

Contact Us

service@oalib.com

QQ:3279437679

WhatsApp +8615387084133

WeChat 1538708413