All Title Author
Keywords Abstract

Publish in OALib Journal
ISSN: 2333-9721
APC: Only $99

ViewsDownloads

Seasonal Trend and Distribution of Wire-Snaring Activities and Possible Hotspots in the Sengwa Wildlife Area (SWRA), Zimbabwe

DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1109287, PP. 1-14

Subject Areas: Animal Behavior

Keywords: Wire Snare, SWRA, Patrol, Trend, Season

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib

Abstract

One salient method of poaching is the use of wire snares to kill wild animals. The study sought to determine seasonal trend and distribution of wire snaring in Sengwa Wildlife Research Area (SWRA) and predict possible seasonal hotspots areas. Presence-only data from law enforcement patrols done by field rangers between January, 2018 and December, 2021 was used. Descriptive statistics was used to establish trend in wire-snare occurrence from 2018 to 2021. Kruskal Wallis test was performed to determine if there was significance difference on number of wire snares removed in different season. Kernel Density Estimation (KDE) analysed in R was used to highlight the relative probability of snaring hotspot based on wire snare GPS coordinates and number of snares removed at the site in ArcMap 10.3. Total effort from January, 2018 to December, 2021 was 4767 patrol sessions, with 2314 wire-snares recovered. Of the snares recorded, 14.5% (n = 335) were recovered in wet season, 29. 4% (n = 680) in cool dry season while 56.1% (n = 1299) in hot dry season. Of the removed wire-snares, 1573 were set targeting small animals, 602 for medium size animals while 139 were meant for large animals. There was no significant difference on number of wire snares removed in wet, cool dry and hot dry season (Z-Value = 4.654, p = 0.086). Based on present only data collected for this study, the results showed seasonal variation of hotspot areas. This study recommends that well-designed scientific inquiry performed in concert with anti-poaching team has the potential to substantially decrease the threat of snaring in SWRA.

Cite this paper

Mahakata, I. (2022). Seasonal Trend and Distribution of Wire-Snaring Activities and Possible Hotspots in the Sengwa Wildlife Area (SWRA), Zimbabwe. Open Access Library Journal, 9, e9287. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1109287.

References

[1]  Laurance, W.F., Carolina Useche, D., Rendeiro, J., Kalka, M., Bradshaw, C.J.A., Sloan, S.P. and Zamzani, F. (2012) Averting Biodiversity Collapse in Tropical Forest Protected Areas. Nature, 489, 290-294. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature11318
[2]  Rauset, G.R., Andrén, H., Swenson, J.E., Samelius, G., Segerström, P., Zedrosser, A. and Persson, J. (2016) National Parks in Northern Sweden as Refuges for Illegal Killing of Large Carnivores. Conservation Letters, 9, 334-341. https://doi.org/10.1111/conl.12226
[3]  Tranquilli, S., Abedi-Lartey, M., Amsini, F., Arranz, L., Asamoah, A., Babafemi, O. and Kuehl, H. (2012) Lack of Conservation Effort Rapidly Increases African Great Ape Extinction Risk. Conservation Letters, 5, 48-55. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-263X.2011.00211.x
[4]  Harrison, R.D. (2011) Emptying the Forest: Hunting and the Extirpation of Wildlife from Tropical Nature Reserves. BioScience, 61, 919-924. https://doi.org/10.1525/bio.2011.61.11.11
[5]  Bruner, A.G., Gullison, R.E., Rice, R.E., da Fonseca and Gustavo, A.B. (2001) Effectiveness of Parks in Protecting Tropical Biodiversity. Science, 291, 125-128. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.291.5501.125
[6]  Fa, J.E. and Brown, D. (2009) Impacts of Hunting on Mammals in African Tropical Moist Forests: A Review and Synthesis. Mammal Review, 39, 231-264. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2907.2009.00149.x
[7]  Becker, M., McRobb, R., Watson, F., Droge, E., Kanyembo, B., Murdoch, J. and Kakumbi, C. (2013) Evaluating Wire-Snare Poaching Trends and the Impacts of By-Catch on Elephants and Large Carnivores. Biological Conservation, 158, 26-36. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2012.08.017
[8]  Hilborn, R., Arcese, P., Borner, M., Hando, J., Hopcraft, G., Loibooki, M., Mduma, S. and Sinclair, A.R.E. (2006) Effective Enforcement in a Conservation Area. Science, 314, 1266. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1132780
[9]  Keane, A., Jones, J.P.G., Edward-Jones, G. and Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2008) The Sleeping Policeman: Understanding Issues of Enforcement and Compliance in Conservation. Animal Conservation, 11, 75-82. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-1795.2008.00170.x
[10]  Critchlow, R., Plumptre, A.J. andira, B., Nsubuga, M., Driciru, M., Rwetsiba, A. and Beale, C.M. (2017) Improving Law Enforcement Effectiveness and Efficiency in Protected Areas Using Ranger-Collected Monitoring Data. Conservation Letters, 10, 572-580. https://doi.org/10.1111/conl.12288
[11]  Ingram, D.J., Coad, L., Abernethy, K., Maisels, F., Stokes, E.J., Bobo, K.S. and Waltert, M. (2017) Assessing Africa-Wide Pangolin Exploitation by Scaling Local Data. Conservation Letters, 11, 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1111/conl.12389
[12]  Hötte, M.H.H., Kolodin, I.A., Bereznuk, S.L., Slaght, J.C., Kerley, L.L., Soutyrina, S.V. and Miquelle, D.G. (2016) Indicators of Success for Smart Law Enforcement in Protected Areas: A Case Study for Russian Amur Tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) Reserves. Integrative Zoology, 11, 2-15. https://doi.org/10.1111/1749-4877.12168
[13]  Tafangenyasha, C., Ngorima, P., Musungwa, S. and Kavhu, B. (2018) Modifications of the Flora Zambeziaca in the Zambezi Basin by Environmental Antecedent Factors: Termites, Fire and Elephant. International Journal of Environmental Sciences & Natural Resources, 12, Article ID: 555840.
[14]  Mahakata, I. and Mapaure, I. (2021) An Analysis of the factors Contributing to Elephant Population Fluctuations in SWRA Using Ranger-Based Knowledge and Perceptions. Ecology & Conservation Science, 1, Article ID: 555571.
[15]  Loveridge, A.J., Sousa, L.L., Seymour-Smith, J., Hunt, J., Coals, P., O’Donnell, H., Lindsey, P.A., Mandisodza-Chikerema, R. and Macdonald, D.W. (2020) Evaluating the Spatial Intensity and Demographic Impacts of Wire-Snare Bush-Meat Poaching on Large Carnivores. Biological Conservation, 244, Article ID: 108504. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2020.108504
[16]  Watson, F.G.R, Becker, M., McRobb, R. and Kanyembo, B. (2013) Spatial Patterns of Wire-Snare Poaching: Implications for Community Conservation in Buffer Zones around National Parks. Biological Conservation, 168, 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2013.09.003
[17]  Tumusiime, D.M., Eilu, G., Tweheyo, M. and Babweteera, F. (2010) Wildlife Snaring in Budongo Forest Reserve, Uganda. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 15, 129-144. https://doi.org/10.1080/10871200903493899
[18]  Lindsey, P.A., Romañach, S.S., Matema, S., Matema, C., Mupamhadzi, I. and Muvengwi, J. (2011) Dynamics and Underlying Causes of Illegal Bushmeat Trade in Zimbabwe. Oryx, 45, 84-95. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0030605310001274
[19]  Noss, A.J. (1998) The Impacts of Cable Snare Hunting on Wildlife Population in the Forests of the Central African Republic. Conservation Biology, 12, 390-398. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1523-1739.1998.96027.x
[20]  Gadgil, M., Berkes, F. and Folke, C. (1993) Indigenous Knowledge for Biodiversity Conservation. Ambio, 22, 151-156.
[21]  Johnstone, K., Kimanzi, R.A., et al. (2015) Spatial Distribution of Snares in Ruma National Park, Kenya, with Implications for Management of the Roan Antelope Hippotragus equinus langheldi and Other Wildlife. Oryx, 49, 295-302. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0030605313000689
[22]  Leigh, K.A. (2005) The Ecology and Conservation Biology of the Endangered African Wild Dog (Lycaon pictus), in the Lower Zambezi, Zambia. PhD Thesis, University of Sydney, Sydney.
[23]  Pole, A. (1999) The Behaviour and Ecology of African Wild Dogs, Lycaon pictus, in an Environment with Reduced Competitor Density. PhD Thesis, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen.
[24]  Lindsey, P.A., Romañach, S.S., Tambling, C.J., Chartier, K. and Groom, R. (2011) Ecological and Financial Impacts of Illegal Bushmeat Trade in Zimbabwe. Oryx, 45, 96-111. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0030605310000153

Full-Text


comments powered by Disqus

Contact Us

service@oalib.com

QQ:3279437679

WhatsApp +8615387084133

WeChat 1538708413