The loss of crop production caused by weeds has become a serious threat to many important crops. The utilization of microorganism metabolites is considered as an effective method towards a wide variety of weeds in the field. In this study, sixty-eight strains were isolated from weed plants with infections symptom. Each strain was cultured in submerged liquid medium. Culture filtrate was obtained from fermented broth by filtration and it was used to determine herbicidal activity both in vitro and in vivo with two target weeds: Avena fatua and Brassica juncea. The results indicated that seven strains exhibited potent herbicidal activity against A. fatua and B. juncea and therefore chosen for secondary screening. Notably, GD-2 and PA-2 strain showed different highest toxicity to target weeds. Culture filtrate of GD-2 was most toxic to A. fatua while PA-2 was most toxic to B. juncea. Further deep study on crop safety indicated that GD-2 was least toxic to broad-bean, pea and oil rapeseed while the effects of PA-2 were varied on crop tested and range from moderate to high toxicity. Culture filtrates from both strains induce protective enzyme activity in weeds and an obvious decrease in chlorophyll content, soluble sugar and protein content. It could increase the malondialdehyde content and conductivity value. Based on the culture characteristics and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence, the GD-2 and PA-2 strain were identified as Fusarium avenaceum and Aureobacidium pullulans, respectively. Overall, two fungi strain might have potential to be developed as herbicidal agents against A. fatua and B. juncea and hope to be further applied to sustainable agriculture.
Cite this paper
Cheng, L. , Zhu, H. , Wei, Y. , Guo, L. , Weng, H. and Guo, Q. (2022). Study on Herbicidal Potential of Two Fungi in Qinghai Region. Open Access Library Journal, 9, e8294. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1108294.
Green, J.M. and Owen, M.D.K. (2011) Herbicide-Resistant Crops: Utilities and Limitations for Herbicide-Resistant Weed Management. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 59, 5819-5829. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf101286h
Stoate, C., Baldi, A., Beja, P., Boatman, N.D., et al. (2009) Ecological Impacts of Early 21st Century Agricultural Change in Europe—A Review. Journal of Environmental Management, 91, 22-46. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2009.07.005
Dagno, K., Lahlali, R., Diourté, M. and Jijakli, M.H. (2012) Present Status of the Development of Mycoherbicides against Water Hyacinth: Successes and Challenges. A Review. Biotechnology, Agronomy and Society and Environment, 16, 360-368.
Palmer, W.A., Heard, T.A. and Sheppard, A.W. (2010) A Review of Australian Classical Biological Control of Weeds Programs and Research Activities over the Past 12 Years. Biological Control, 5, 271-287.
Angélica, R.C., Daiana, B.B., Jessica, L., Vitória, P., Camila, M., Rafael, C.F., Raquel, C.K., Rodrigo, J.S. and Ash, G.J. (2010) The Science, Art and Business of Successful Bioherbicides. Biological Control, 52, 230-240.
Daniel, J.J., Zabot, G.L., Tres, M.V., Harakava, R., Kuhn, R.C. and Mazutti, M.A. (2018) Fusarium Fujikueor: A Novel Source of Metabolites with Herbicidal Activity. Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, 14, 314-320.
Varejão, E.V.V., Demuner, A.J., Barbosa, A. and Barreto, R.W. (2013) The Search for New Natural Herbicides—Strategic Approaches for Discovering Fungal Phytotoxins. Crop Protection, 48, 41-50. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cropro.2013.02.008
Frans, R., Talbert, R., Marx, D. and Crowley, H. (1986) Experimental Design and Techniques for Measuring and Analyzing Plant Responses to Weed Control Practices. In: Camper, N.D., Ed., Research Methods in Weed Science, 3rd Edition, Southern Weed Science Society, Champaign, 29-46.
Ahn, B., Paulitz, T., Jabaji-Hare, S. and Watson, A.K. (2005) Enhancement of Colletotrichum coccodes Virulence by Inhibitors of Plant Defense Mechanisms. Biocontrol Science and Technology, 15, 299-308.
Mäkinen, K.K. and Tenovuo, J. (1982) Observations on the Use of Guaiacol and 2,2’-Azino-di(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) as Peroxidase Substrates. Analytical Biochemistry, 126, 100-108. https://doi.org/10.1016/0003-2697(82)90114-2
Hegab, M.M., Abdelgawad, H., Abdelhamed, M.S., Hammouda, O., Pandey, R., Kumar, V. and Zinta, G. (2013) Effects of Tricin Isolated from Jungle Rice (Echinochloa colona L.) on Amylase Activity and Oxidative Stress in Wildoat (Avena fatua L.). Allelopathy Journal, 31, 345-354. https://doi.org/10.1080/00103624.2012.756003
Nakano, Y. and Asada, K. (1981) Hydrogen Peroxide Is Scavenged by Ascorbate-Specific Peroxidase in Spinach Chloroplasts. Plant and Cell Physiology, 22, 867-880. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.pcp.a076232
Inoue, A. and Izumi, H. (2020) Influence of Artificial Inoculation with Pseudomonas fluorescens on Enzymatic Browning Reactions of Fresh-Cut Potatoes. Biocontrol Science, 25, 215-222. https://doi.org/10.4265/bio.25.215
Jiang, S.J., Qiang, S., Zhu, Y.Z. and Dong, Y.F. (2008) Isolation and Phytotoxicity of a Metabolite from Curvularia eragrostidis and Characterisation of Its Modes of Action. Annals of Applied Biology, 152, 103-111.
Mutlu, S., Atici, O., Esim, N. and Mete, E. (2011) Essential Oils of Catmint (Nepeta meyeri Benth.) Induce Oxidative Stress in Early Seedlings of Various Weed Species. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum, 33, 943-951.
Hassan, M.O., Gomaa, N.H., Fahmy, G.M., Gonzalez, L., Hammouda, O. and Atteya, A.M. (2014) Influence of Sonchus oleraceus L. Residue on Soil Properties and Growth of Some Plants. The Philippine Agricultural Scientist, 97, 368-376.
Gao, Z., Khalid, M., Jan, F., Saeed-ur-Rahman, Jiang, X. and Yu, X. (2019) Effects of Light-Regulation and Intensity on the Growth, Physiological and Biochemical Properties of Aralia elata (miq.) Seedlings. South African Journal of Botany, 121, 456-462. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sajb.2018.12.008
Sedmak, J.J. and Grossberg, S.E. (1977) A Rapid, Sensitive, and Versatile Assay for Protein Using Coomassie Brilliant Blue G250. Analytical Biochemistry, 79, 544-552.
Tamura, K., Stecher, G., Peterson, D., Filipski, A. and Kumar, S. (2013) MEGA6: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis Version 6.0. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 30, 2725-2729. https://doi.org/10.1093/molbev/mst197
Tiourebaev, K.S., Semenchenko, G.V., Dolgovskaya, M., McCarthy, M.K., Anderson, T.W., Carsten-Conner, L.D., Pilgeram, A.L. and Sands, D.C. (2001) Biological Control of Infestations of Ditchweed (Cannabis sativa) with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cannabis in Kazakhstan. Biocontrol Science and Technology, 11, 535-540.
Ndambi, B., Cadisch, G., Elzein, A. and Heller, A. (2012) Tissue Specific Reactions of Sorghum Roots to the Mycoherbicide F. oxysporum f. sp. strigae versus the Pathogenic F. ptoliferatum. Biocontrol Science and Technology, 22, 135-150.
Li, S., Shao, M.W., Lu, Y.H., Kong, L.C., Jiang, D.H. and Zhang, Y.L. (2014) Phytotoxic and Antibacterial Metabolites from Fusarium proliferatum ZS07 Isolated from the Gut of Long-Horned Grasshoppers. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 62, 8997-9001. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf502484n
Radhakrishnan, R., Park, J.M. and Lee, I.J. (2016) Enterobacter sp. I-3, a Bio-Herbicide Inhibits Gibberellins Biosynthetic Pathway and Regulates Abscisic Acid and Amino Acids Synthesis to Control Plant Growth. Microbiological Research, 193, 132-139. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.micres.2016.10.004
Nilsson, R.H., Kristiansson, E., Ryberg, M., Hallenberg, N. and Larsson, K.H. (2008) Intraspecific ITS Variability in the Kingdom Fungi as Expressed in the International Sequence Databases and Its Implication for Molecular Species Identification. Evolutionary Bioinformatics, 4, 193-201. https://doi.org/10.4137/EBO.S653
Badotti, F., Francislon, S.O., Garcia, C.F., Aline, B.M.V., Fonseca, P.L.C., Nahum, L.A., Oliveira, G. and Góes-Neto, A. (2017) Effectiveness of ITS and Sub-Regions as DNA Barcode Markers for the Identification of Basidiomycota (Fungi). BMC Microbiology, 17, Article No. 42. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12866-017-0958-x