All Title Author
Keywords Abstract

Publish in OALib Journal
ISSN: 2333-9721
APC: Only $99


Neonatal Outcomes of COVID-19 Positive Pregnant Women: A Systematic Review

DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1108019, PP. 1-24

Subject Areas: Infectious Diseases, Gynecology & Obstetrics

Keywords: Systematic Review, Pregnant Women, COVID-19, Neonatal Outcomes

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib


Pregnant women experience physiological changes such as pulmonary adaptation due to an elevated diaphragm and altered cell immunity. These factors can predispose pregnant women to enhanced susceptibility to severe viral pneumonia infection, leading to adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with increased mortality and morbidity in neonates. Currently, the COVID-19 pandemic has reported over 230 million cases reported globally and generated evidence on raising concerns about maternal infection on the added risk of adverse neonatal outcomes. The review aims to evaluate the effects of COVID- 19 on neonatal outcomes of infected pregnant women. We conducted the systematic review following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) method. To identify relevant articles based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria on COVID-19 infected pregnancies and the neonatal outcomes, we searched four databases (PubMed, Embase, Scopus and Web of Science) from January 01, 2020 to June 20, 2021 by using medical subject heading and keywords under the PECO concept (P = pregnant women, E = COVID-19, O = neonatal outcome). We also assessed the risk of bias of the selected articles. We found that newborns of COVID-19 positive mothers are more likely to be born prematurely and by caesarean section. They need NICU admissions mainly due to prematurity related to maternal COVID-19 status at delivery. We did not find any evidence linking maternal COVID-19 status to low Apgar score, low birthweight, neonatal resuscitation at birth and neonatal death. Neonatal SARS-CoV-2 positive status was infrequently reported. The possibility of vertical transmission was raised, which may contribute to a large number of preterm births and caesarean deliveries in the COVID-19 positive mothers, but there is a paucity of evidence on vertical transmission. There is a shift in focus from vertical to horizontal transmission in the case of neonatal COVID-19 infection, thereby emphasizing the implementation of safety precautions while balancing the need to allow breastfeeding and mother-to-infant skin contact. This systematic review provides evidence on the necessity of close monitoring of neonates of COVID-19 positive mothers and taking preventive measures against the acquisition of COVID-19 in neonates.

Cite this paper

Khong, J. , Teoh, J. , Hashim, S. S. S. and Jahan, N. K. (2021). Neonatal Outcomes of COVID-19 Positive Pregnant Women: A Systematic Review. Open Access Library Journal, 8, e8019. doi:


[1]  Wang, C.L., Liu, Y.Y., Wu, C.H., Wang, C.Y., Wang, C.H. and Long, C.Y. (2021) Impact of COVID-19 on Pregnancy. International Journal of Medical Sciences, 18, 763-767.
[2]  Ahn, D.G., Shin, H.J., Kim, M.H., Lee, S., Kim, H.S., Myoung, J., et al. (2020) Current Status of Epidemiology, Diagnosis, Therapeutics, and Vaccines for Novel Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Journal of Microbiolog and Biotechnology, 30, 313-324.
[3]  Di Mascio, D., Khalil, A., Saccone, G., Rizzo, G., Buca, D., Liberati, M., et al. (2020) Outcome of Coronavirus Spectrum Infections (SARS, MERS, COVID-19) during Pregnancy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology MFM, 2, Article ID: 100107.
[4]  Maleki Dana, P., Kolahdooz, F., Sadoughi, F., Moazzami, B., Chaichian, S. and Asemi, Z. (2020) COVID-19 and Pregnancy: A Review of Current Knowledge. Le infezioni in Medicina, 28, 46-51.
[5]  Mohamadian, M., Chiti, H., Shoghli, A., Biglari, S., Parsamanesh, N. and Esmaeilzadeh, A. (2021) COVID-19: Virology, Biology and Novel Laboratory Diagnosis. The Journal of Gene Medicine, 23, Article No. e3303.
[6]  World Health Organization (WHO) (2020) WHO Coronavirus (COVID-19) Dashboard. World Health Organization, Genava.
[7]  Abedzadeh-Kalahroudi, M., Sehat, M., Vahedpour, Z. and Talebian, P. (2021) Maternal and Neonatal Outcomes of Pregnant Patients with COVID-19: A Prospective Cohort Study. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics, 153, 449-456.
[8]  Figueiro-Filho, E.A., Yudin, M. and Farine, D. (2020) COVID-19 during Pregnancy: an Overview of Maternal Characteristics, Clinical Symptoms, Maternal and Neonatal Outcomes of 10,996 Cases Described in 15 Countries. Journal of Perinatal Medicine, 48, 900-911.
[9]  Lu, R., Zhao, X., Li, J., Niu, P., Yang, B., Wu, H., et al. (2020) Genomic Characterisation and Epidemiology of 2019 Novel Coronavirus: Implications for Virus Origins and Receptor Binding. Lancet, 395, 565-574.
[10]  Yao, W.L., Qiu, J.C., Xiao, Z.R. and Ouyang, S. (2020) Pregnancy and COVID-19: Management and Challenges. Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo, 62, Article No. e62.
[11]  Goldenberg, R.L., Culhane, J.F., Iams, J.D. and Romero, R. (2008) Epidemiology and Causes of Preterm Birth. Lancet, 371, 75-84.
[12]  Chawanpaiboon, S., Vogel, J.P., Moller, A.B., Lumbiganon, P., Petzold, M., Hogan, D., et al. (2019) Global, regIonal, and National Estimates of Levels of Preterm Birth in 2014: A Systematic Review and Modelling Analysis. The Lancet Global Health, 7, e37-e46.
[13]  Akhtar, H., Patel, C., Abuelgasim, E. and Harky, A. (2020) COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) Infection in Pregnancy: A Systematic Review. Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation, 85, 295-306.
[14]  Papapanou, M., Papaioannou, M., Petta, A., Routsi, E., Farmaki, M., Vlahos, N., et al. (2021) Maternal and Neonatal Characteristics and Outcomes of COVID-19 in Pregnancy: An Overview of Systematic Reviews. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18, Article No. 596.
[15]  Phoswa, W.N. and Khaliq, O.P. (2020) Is Pregnancy a Risk Factor of COVID-19? European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, 252, 605-609.
[16]  Salem, D., Katranji, F. and Bakdash, T. (2021) COVID-19 Infection in Pregnant Women: Review of Maternal and Fetal Outcomes. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics, 152, 291-298.
[17]  Al-Matary, A., Almatari, F., Al-Matary, M., AlDhaefi, A., Alqahtani, M.H.S., Alhulaimi, E.A., et al. (2021) Clinical Outcomes of Maternal and Neonate with COVID-19 Infection—Multicenter Study in Saudi Arabia. Journal of Infection and Public Health, 14, 702-708.
[18]  Angelidou, A., Sullivan, K., Melvin, P.R., Shui, J.E., Goldfarb, I.T., Bartolome, R., et al. (2021) Association of Maternal Perinatal SARS-CoV-2 Infection with Neonatal Outcomes during the COVID-19 Pandemic in Massachusetts. JAMA Network Open, 4, Article ID: e217523.
[19]  Gabriel, M.A.M., Vergeli, M.R., Carbonero, S.C., Sole, L., Molina, T.C., Calle, I.R., et al. (2020) Maternal, Perinatal and Neonatal Outcomes with COVID-19: A Multicenter Study of 242 Pregnancies and Their 248 Infant Newborns during Their First Month of Life. The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, 39, E393-E397.
[20]  Gupta, P., Kumar, S. and Sharma, S.S. (2021) SARS-CoV-2 Prevalence and Maternal-Perinatal Outcomes among Pregnant Women Admitted for Delivery: Experience from COVID-19-Dedicated Maternity Hospital in Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir (India). Journal of Medical Virology, 93, 5505-5514.
[21]  Hcini, N., Maamri, F., Picone, O., Carod, J.F., Lambert, V., Mathieu, M., et al. (2021) Maternal, Fetal and Neonatal Outcomes of Large Series of SARS-CoV-2 Positive Pregnancies in Peripartum Period: A Single-Center Prospective Comparative Study. European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, 257, 11-18.
[22]  Khoury, R., Bernstein, P.S., Debolt, C., Stone, J., Sutton, D.M., Simpson, L.L., et al. (2020) Characteristics and Outcomes of 241 Births to Women with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Infection at Five New York City Medical Centers. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 136, 273-282.
[23]  Malik, S., Surve, S., Wade, P., Kondekar, S., Sawant, V., Shaikh, M., et al. (2021) Clinical Characteristics, Management, and Short Term Outcome of Neonates Born to Mothers with COVID-19 in a Tertiary Care Hospital in India. Journal of Tropical Pediatrics, 67, Article No. fmab054.
[24]  Maraschini, A., Corsi, E., Salvatore, M.A., Donati, S. and It OSSC-WG (2020) Coronavirus and Birth in Italy: Results of a National Population-Based Cohort Study. Annali dell’Istituto Superiore di Sanità, 56, 378-389.
[25]  Norman, M., Navér, L., Söderling, J., Ahlberg, M., Hervius Askling, H., Aronsson, B., et al. (2021) Association of Maternal SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Pregnancy with Neonatal Outcomes. JAMA, 325, 2076-2086.
[26]  Oncel, M.Y., Akin, I.M., Kanburoglu, M.K., Tayman, C., Coskun, S., Narter, F., et al. (2021) A Multicenter Study on Epidemiological and Clinical Characteristics of 125 Newborns Born to Women Infected with COVID-19 by Turkish Neonatal Society. European Journal of Pediatrics, 180, 733-742.
[27]  Saccone, G., Sen, C., Di Mascio, D., Galindo, A., Grunebaum, A., Yoshimatsu, J., et al. (2021) Maternal and Perinatal Outcomes of Pregnant Women with SARS-CoV-2 Infection. Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology, 57, 232-241.
[28]  Sánchez-Luna, M., Fernández Colomer, B., de Alba Romero, C., Alarcón Allen, A., Baña Souto, A., Camba Longueira, F., et al. (2021) Neonates Born to Mothers with COVID-19: Data from the Spanish Society of Neonatology Registry. Pediatrics, 147, Article ID: e2020015065.
[29]  Singh, V., Choudhary, A., Datta, M.R. and Ray, A. (2021) Maternal and Neonatal Outcomes of COVID-19 in Pregnancy: A Single-Centre Observational Study. Cureus, 13, Article ID: e13184.
[30]  Bellos, I., Pandita, A. and Panza, R. (2021) Maternal and Perinatal Outcomes in Pregnant Women Infected by SARS-CoV-2: A Meta-Analysis. European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, 256, 194-204.
[31]  Di Toro, F., Gjoka, M., Di Lorenzo, G., De Santo, D., De Seta, F., Maso, G., et al. (2021) Impact of COVID-19 on Maternal and Neonatal Outcomes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Clinical Microbiology and Infection, 27, 36-46.
[32]  Poon, L.C., Yang, H., Kapur, A., Melamed, N., Dao, B., Divakar, H., et al. (2020) Global Interim Guidance on Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) during Pregnancy and Puerperium from FIGO and Allied Partners: Information for Healthcare Professionals. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics, 149, 273-286.
[33]  Tadas, M.P., Prashanthi, S. and Waikar, M. (2021) Maternal and Neonatal Outcomes of Pregnant Women with Covid-19: A Case-Control Study at a Tertiary Care Center in India. Journal of South Asian Federation of Obstetrics and Gynaecolog, 13, 44-49.
[34]  Mboya, I.B., Mahande, M.J., Obure, J. and Mwambi, H.G. (2020) Predictors of Perinatal Death in the Presence of Missing Data: A Birth Registry-Based Study in Northern Tanzania. PLoS ONE, 15, Article ID: e0231636.
[35]  Chamseddine, R.S., Wahbeh, F., Chervenak, F., Salomon, L.J., Ahmed, B. and Rafii, A. (2020) Pregnancy and Neonatal Outcomes in SARS-CoV-2 Infection: A Systematic Review. Journal of Pregnancy, 2020, Article ID: 4592450.
[36]  Anand, P., Yadav, A., Debata, P., Bachani, S., Gupta, N. and Gera, R. (2021) Clinical Profile, Viral Load, Management and Outcome of Neonates Born to COVID 19 Positive Mothers: A Tertiary Care Centre Experience from India. European Journal of Pediatrics, 180, 547-559.
[37]  Ehrenstein, V. (2009) Association of Apgar Scores with Death and Neurologic Disability. Clinical Epidemiology, 1, 45-53.
[38]  Moster, D., Lie, R.T., Irgens, L.M., Bjerkedal, T. and Markestad, T. (2001) The Association of Apgar Score with Subsequent Death and Cerebral Palsy: A Population-Based Study in Term Infants. The Journal of Pediatrics, 138, 798-803.
[39]  Lie, K.K., Grøholt, E.K. and Eskild, A. (2010) Association of Cerebral Palsy with Apgar Score in Low and Normal Birthweight Infants: Population Based Cohort Study. BMJ, 341, Article No. c4990.
[40]  Dubey, P., Reddy, S.Y., Manuel, S. and Dwivedi, A.K. (2020) Maternal and Neonatal Characteristics and Outcomes among COVID-19 Infected Women: An Updated Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, 252, 490-501.
[41]  Huntley, B.J.F., Mulder, I.A., Di Mascio, D., Vintzileos, W.S., Vintzileos, A.M., Berghella, V., et al. (2021) Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes among Individuals with and without Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2): A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 137, 585-596.
[42]  Verma, S., Bradshaw, C., Auyeung, N.S.F., Lumba, R., Farkas, J.S., Sweeney, N.B., et al. (2020) Outcomes of Maternal-Newborn Dyads after Maternal SARS-CoV-2. Pediatrics, 146, Article ID: e2020005637.
[43]  Dube, R. and Kar, S.S. (2020) COVID-19 in Pregnancy: The Foetal Perspective—A Systematic Review. BMJ Paediatrics Open, 4, Article ID: e000859.
[44]  Kinney, H.C. (2006) The Near-Term (Late Preterm) Human Brain and Risk for Periventricular Leukomalacia: A Review. Seminars in Perinatology, 30, 81-88.
[45]  Mwaniki, M.K., Atieno, M., Lawn, J.E. and Newton, C.R. (2012) Long-Term Neurodevelopmental Outcomes after Intrauterine and Neonatal Insults: A Systematic Review. Lancet, 379, 445-452.
[46]  Ramenghi, L.A. (2015) Late Preterm Babies and the Risk of Neurological Damage. Acta Biomedica, 86, 36-40.
[47]  Madinger, N.E., Greenspoon, J.S. and Ellrodt, A.G. (1989) Pneumonia during Pregnancy: Has Modern Technology Improved Maternal and Fetal Outcome? American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 161, 657-662.
[48]  Benedetti, T.J., Valle, R. and Ledger, W.J. (1982) Antepartum Pneumonia in Pregnancy. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 144, 413-417.
[49]  Berkowitz, K. and LaSala, A. (1990) Risk Factors Associated with the Increasing Prevalence of Pneumonia during Pregnancy. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 163, 981-985.
[50]  Schwartz, D.A. and Graham, A.L. (2020) Potential Maternal and Infant Outcomes from Coronavirus 2019-NCOV (SARS-CoV-2) Infecting Pregnant Women: Lessons from SARS, MERS, and Other Human Coronavirus Infections. Viruses, 12, Article No. 194.
[51]  Zhu, H., Wang, L., Fang, C., Peng, S., Zhang, L., Chang, G., et al. (2020) Clinical Analysis of 10 Neonates Born to Mothers with 2019-nCoV Pneumonia. Translational Pediatrics, 9, 51-60.
[52]  Barrero-Castillero, A., Beam, K.S., Bernardini, L.B., Ramos, E.G.C., Davenport, P.E., Duncan, A.R., et al. (2021) COVID-19: Neonatal-Perinatal Perspectives. Journal of Perinatology, 41, 940-951.
[53]  Allotey, J., Stallings, E., Bonet, M., Yap, M., Chatterjee, S., Kew, T., et al. (2020) Clinical Manifestations, Risk Factors, and Maternal and Perinatal Outcomes of Coronavirus Disease 2019 in Pregnancy: Living Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. The BMJ, 370, Article No. m3320.
[54]  Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (2021) Coronavirus (COVID-19) Infection in Pregnancy.
[55]  Qi, H., Luo, X., Zheng, Y., Zhang, H., Li, J., Zou, L., et al. (2020) Safe Delivery for Pregnancies Affected by COVID-19. BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, 127, 927-929.
[56]  Penfield, C.A., Brubaker, S.G., Limaye, M.A., Lighter, J., Ratner, A.J., Thomas, K.M., et al. (2020) Detection of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 in Placental and Fetal Membrane Samples. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology MFM, 2, Article ID: 100133.
[57]  Boelig, R.C., Manuck, T., Oliver, E.A., Di Mascio, D., Saccone, G., Bellussi, F., et al. (2020) Labor and Delivery Guidance for COVID-19. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology MFM, 2, Article ID: 100110.
[58]  Martínez-Perez, O., Vouga, M., Cruz Melguizo, S., Forcen Acebal, L., Panchaud, A., Muñoz-Chápuli, M., et al. (2020) Association between Mode of Delivery among Pregnant Women with COVID-19 and Maternal and Neonatal Outcomes in Spain. JAMA, 324, 296-299.
[59]  Auriti, C., De Rose, D.U., Tzialla, C., Caforio, L., Ciccia, M., Manzoni, P., et al. (2020) Vertical Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19): Are Hypotheses More than Evidences? American Journal of Perinatology, 37, S31-S38.
[60]  Dingom, M.A.N., Sobngwi, E., Essiben, F., Assiga, A.N., Wasnyo, Y.F., Ngate, A., et al. (2020) Maternal and Fetal Outcomes of COVID-19 Pregnant Women Followed Up at a Tertiary Care Unit: A Descriptive Study. Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 10, 1482-1491.
[61]  Wu, Y., Liu, C., Dong, L., Zhang, C., Chen, Y., Liu, J., et al. (2020) Coronavirus Disease 2019 among Pregnant Chinese Women: Case Series Data on the Safety of Vaginal Birth and Breastfeeding. BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, 127, 1109-1115.
[62]  Aslan, M.M., Uslu Yuvaci, H., Köse, O., Toptan, H., Akdemir, N., Köroglu, M., et al. (2020) SARS-CoV-2 Is Not Present in the Vaginal Fluid of Pregnant Women with COVID-19. The Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicined.
[63]  Dumitriu, D., Emeruwa, U.N., Hanft, E., Liao, G.V., Ludwig, E., Walzer, L., et al. (2021) Outcomes of Neonates Born to Mothers with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Infection at a Large Medical Center in New York City. JAMA Pediatrics, 175, 157-167.
[64]  Sankaran, D., Nakra, N., Cheema, R., Blumberg, D. and Lakshminrusimha, S. (2021) Perinatal SARS-CoV-2 Infection and Neonatal COVID-19: A 2021 Update. Neoreviews, 22, e284-e295.
[65]  American Academy of Pediatrics (2020) SONPM National Registry for Surveillance and Epidemiology of Perinatal COVID-19 Infection: Section on Neonatal-Pernatal Medicine.
[66]  Kotlyar, A.M., Grechukhina, O., Chen, A., Popkhadze, S., Grimshaw, A., Tal, O., et al. (2021) Vertical Transmission of Coronavirus Disease 2019: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 224, 35-53.e3.
[67]  Pierce-Williams, R.A.M., Burd, J., Felder, L., Khoury, R., Bernstein, P.S., Avila, K., et al. (2020) Clinical Course of Severe and Critical Coronavirus Disease 2019 in Hospitalized Pregnancies: A United States Cohort Study. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology MFM, 2, Article ID: 100134.
[68]  Chen, H.J., Guo, J.J., Wang, C., Luo, F., Yu, X.C., Zhang, W., et al. (2020) Clinical Characteristics and Intrauterine Vertical Transmission Potential of COVID-19 Infection in Nine Pregnant Women: A Retrospective Review of Medical Records. Lancet, 395, 809-815.
[69]  Yockey, L.J., Lucas, C. and Iwasaki, A. (2020) Contributions of Maternal and Fetal Antiviral Immunity in Congenital Disease. Science, 368, 608-612.
[70]  Pereira, L. (2018) Congenital Viral Infection: Traversing the Uterine-Placental Interface. Annual Review of Virology, 5, 273-299.
[71]  Woodworth, K.R., O’Malley Olsen, E., Neelam, V., Lewis, E.L., Galang, R.R., Oduyebo, T., et al. (2020) Birth and Infant Outcomes Following Laboratory-Confirmed SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Pregnancy—SET-NET, 16 Jurisdictions, March 29-October 14, 2020. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 69, 1635-1640.
[72]  Dong, L., Tian, J., He, S., Zhu, C., Wang, J., Liu, C., et al. (2020) Possible Vertical Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from an Infected Mother to Her Newborn. JAMA, 323, 1846-1848.
[73]  Kimberlin, D.W. and Stagno, S. (2020) Can SARS-CoV-2 Infection Be Acquired in Utero? More Definitive Evidence Is Needed. JAMA, 323, 1788-1789.
[74]  Raschetti, R., Vivanti, A.J., Vauloup-Fellous, C., Loi, B., Benachi, A. and De Luca, D. (2020) Synthesis and Systematic Review of Reported Neonatal SARS-CoV-2 Infections. Nature Communications, 11, Article No. 5164.
[75]  Wang, L., Shi, Y., Xiao, T., Fu, J., Feng, X., Mu, D., et al. (2020) Chinese Expert Consensus on the Perinatal and Neonatal Management for the Prevention and Control of the 2019 Novel Coronavirus Infection (First Edition). Annals of Translational Medicined, 8, Article No. 47.
[76]  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2020) Interim Considerations for Infection Prevention and Control of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Inpatient Obstetric Healthcare Settings. [Updated 18 February 2020].
[77]  World Health Organization (WHO) (2021) COVID-19 Clinical Management: Living Guidance [Updated 25 January 2021].
[78]  Centeno-Tablante, E., Medina-Rivera, M., Finkelstein, J.L., Rayco-Solon, P., Garcia-Casal, M.N., Rogers, L., et al. (2021) Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 through Breast Milk and Breastfeeding: A Living Systematic Review. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1484, 32-54.
[79]  Sahin, D., Tanacan, A., Erol, S.A., Anuk, A.T., Eyi, E.G.Y., Ozgu-Erdinc, A.S., et al. (2020) A Pandemic Center’s Experience of Managing Pregnant Women with COVID-19 Infection in Turkey: A Prospective Cohort Study. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics, 151, 74-82.
[80]  Lackey, K.A., Pace, R.M., Williams, J.E., Bode, L., Donovan, S.M., Järvinen, K.M., et al. (2020) SARS-CoV-2 and Human Milk: What Is the Evidence? Maternal & Child Nutrition, 16, Article No. e13032.
[81]  Yang, N., Che, S., Zhang, J., Wang, X., Tang, Y., Wang, J., et al. (2020) Breastfeeding of Infants Born to Mothers with COVID-19: A Rapid Review. Annals of Translational Medicine, 8, Article No. 618.
[82]  American Academy of Pediatrics (2021) Breastfeeding Guidance Post Hospital Discharge for Mothers or Infants with Suspected or Confirmed SARS-Co V-2 Infection.
[83]  Farghaly, M.A.A., Kupferman, F., Castillo, F. and Kim, R.M. (2020) Characteristics of Newborns Born to SARS-CoV-2-Positive Mothers: A Retrospective Cohort Study. American Journal of Perinatology, 37, 1310-1316.
[84]  Stuebe, A. (2020) Should Infants Be Separated from Mothers with COVID-19? First, Do No Harm. Breastfeeding Medicine, 15, 351-352.
[85]  Cheema, R., Partridge, E., Kair, L.R., Kuhn-Riordon, K.M., Silva, A.I., Bettinelli, M.E., et al. (2020) Protecting Breastfeeding during the COVID-19 Pandemic. American Journal of Perinatology, 1-7.
[86]  Rawat, M., Chandrasekharan, P., Hicar, M.D. and Lakshminrusimha, S. (2020) COVID-19 in Newborns and Infants-Low Risk of Severe Disease: Silver Lining or Dark Cloud? American Journal of Perinatology, 37, 845-849.
[87]  Molloy, E.J. and Bearer, C.F. (2020) COVID-19 in Children and Altered Inflammatory Responses. Pediatric Research, 88, 340-341.
[88]  Carsetti, R., Quintarelli, C., Quinti, I., Piano Mortari, E., Zumla, A., Ippolito, G., et al. (2020) The Immune System of Children: The Key to Understanding SARS-CoV-2 Susceptibility? The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health, 4, 414-416.
[89]  Dhochak, N, Singhal, T., Kabra, S.K. and Lodha, R. (2020) Pathophysiology of COVID-19: Why Children Fare Better than Adults? The Indian Journal of Pediatrics, 87, 537-546.
[90]  Song, R., Preston, G. and Yosypiv, I.V. (2012) Ontogeny of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2. Pediatric Research, 71, 13-19.
[91]  Bunyavanich, S., Do, A. and Vicencio, A. (2020) Nasal Gene Expression of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 in Children and Adults. JAMA, 323, 2427-2429.
[92]  Li, M., Chen, L., Zhang, J., Xiong, C. and Li, X. (2020) The SARS-CoV-2 Receptor ACE2 Expression of Maternal-Fetal Interface and Fetal Organs by Single-Cell Transcriptome Study. PLoS ONE, 15, Article ID: e0230295.


comments powered by Disqus

Contact Us


微信:OALib Journal