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The Impacts of Anthropogenic Activities on the Surface Sediment Quality of Okpare Creek in Niger Delta, Nigeria

DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1107686, PP. 1-12

Subject Areas: Ecology, Zoology

Keywords: Sediment, Niger Delta, Anthropogenic Activities, Physicochemical Parameters, PCA

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Anthropogenic activities along Okpare creek are mainly farming, irrigation, fishing, domestic activities, lumbering and sand mining and these activities can alter some natural components of the creek, hence this study aimed to assess the impact of anthropogenic activities on the surface sediment quality of Okpare Creek in Niger Delta. The sediment samples were collected and analyzed for physiochemical parameters as well as heavy metal content. Sediment quality parameters examined were pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total organic carbon (TOC), total organic matter (TOM), percentage (%) sand, clay, silt and Heavy metals—cadmium, chromium, iron, zinc, lead, copper and nickel. Heavy metals were determined by the samples being subjected to Nitric—perchloric acid digestion and thereafter an atomic absorption spectrophotometer was used to determine the concentration of the metals. Data were analyzed with ANOVA and Duncan Multiple Range Test. With the exception of pH and cadmium, the other physicochemical parameters differ significantly (p < 0.05) across the station. The trend for the heavy metals showed their occurrence in terms as iron > zinc > chromium > lead > copper > cadmium. The principle component analysis (PCA) revealed that eigenvectors classified the physicochemical parameters into four components which all together accounted for 85.320% of the variance in the data set. The contributions were as follow—component 1, 2, 3 and 4 accounted for 27.225%, 25.624%, 21.229% and 11.242% respectively. The high eigenvectors for components 1, 2, 3 and 4 were recorded for Cr, Fe, Zn, Pb and Ni; % sand, clay and silt; % TOM and TOC, Cd, Cu; pH and electrical conductivity respectively. Thus the influence of anthropogenic activities impacted all the parameters analyzed. It is needful that environmental friendly approaches be adopted in order to avoid loss of biodiversity, loss of means of livelihood and health hazards for the locals.

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Onajite, I. and Ovie, O. J. (2022). The Impacts of Anthropogenic Activities on the Surface Sediment Quality of Okpare Creek in Niger Delta, Nigeria. Open Access Library Journal, 9, e7686. doi:


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