All Title Author
Keywords Abstract

Publish in OALib Journal
ISSN: 2333-9721
APC: Only $99


Study of the Association between the Consumption of Dietary Supplements and Lifestyle Factors in a Population of Moroccan Academics during the COVID 19 Health Crisis

DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1107585, PP. 1-30

Subject Areas: Nutrition, Public Health

Keywords: Dietary Supplements (DS), COVID19, Containment, Students, Lifestyle

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib


The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of dietary supplement (DS) consumption by students, their perception of it during Covid 19 confinement, as well as the factors associated with it. A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out online with a questionnaire, with a population of 350 students from Casablanca (Morocco), from March to May, 2020. The consumption pattern of DS, socio-demographic characteristics and lifestyle were collected. The association between the different factors was made by Pearson’s correlation analysis. 69.4% of participants consume DS of which 32% are boys and 27.4% are girls. The most prominent reason for taking DS was to fight fatigue and combat stress (19.8%), and participants preferred to buy them in pharmacies and drugstores (55.5%), on medical prescription. (32.77%) or on the advice of a pharmacist (7.92%). 50.60% consumed vitamins, minerals and/or trace elements, 4.5% proteins/Amino acids and 4% fish oils. About a third (35%) consumed more than one type of supplement at the same time. 45.54% used them occasionally, 17.92% regularly and 6.08 frequently. 48.4% respected the recommended daily doses. Supplementation was significantly associated with body mass index, physical activity, socioeconomic level and is slightly conditioned by dietary practices. 32.5% think that DS is harmless to health; 21.27% that regular consumption can prevent some diseases; 46.23% that excessive consumption can present health risks. These risks could be related to some components of DS. 21.78% of respondent’s experience real satisfaction after consuming DS; 34.65% feel better; while 2.97% think they have no effect. Students seemed more likely to consume DS during confinement than the general population, which raises questions related to their impact on health. Thus, awareness campaigns for students on the risks and dangers of these substances are necessary. Strict regulations to ensure their job security are recommended.

Cite this paper

Mestaghanmi, H. , Labriji, A. , Kehailou, F. Z. , Sabri, A. , Barka, C. A. , Bouzoubaa, H. , M’Touguy, I. , Jabari, M. and Amrani, S. E. (2021). Study of the Association between the Consumption of Dietary Supplements and Lifestyle Factors in a Population of Moroccan Academics during the COVID 19 Health Crisis. Open Access Library Journal, 8, e7585. doi:


[1]  Zhu, N., Zhang, D., Wang, W., Li, X., Yang, B., Song, J., Zhao, X., Huang, B., Shi, W., Lu, R., Niu, P., Zhan, F., et al. (2020) A Novel Coronavirus from Patients with Pneumonia in China, 2019. New England Journal of Medicine, 382, 727-733.
[2]  OMS (World Health Organization) (2019) Faire face au stress durant la flambée de maladie à coronavirus COVID-19.
[3]  Mengin, A., Allé, M.C., Rolling, J., Ligier, F., Schroder, C., Lalanne, L., Berna, F., Jardri, R., Vaiva, G., Geoffroy, P.A., Brunault, P., Thibaut, F., Chevance, A. and Giersch, A. (2020) Conséquences psychopathologiques du confinement. L’Encéphale, 46, S43- S52.
[4]  Polamarasetti, P. and Danik, M. (2020) Nutrition Planning during the COVID-19 Pandemic for Aging Immunity. Bioactive Compounds in Health and Disease, 3, 109-123.
[5]  Gur, J., Mawuntu, M. and Martirosyan, D. (2018) FFC’s Advancement of Functional Food Definition. Functional Foods in Health and Disease, 8, 385-397.
[6]  Monceau, Chr., Blanche-Barbat, E. and Echampe, J. (2002) La consommation ali- mentaire depuis quarante ans, de plus en plus de produits élaborés. INSEE Première, No. 846, 4 p.
[7]  Valette, J. (2015) Les compléments alimentaires (définition, aspects réglementaires, cas pratique: un médicament qui évolue en complément alimentaire). Thèse pré- sentée à l’Université de Limoges, Faculté de Pharmacie, pour l’obtention du Doctorat en Pharmacie, 123 p.
[8]  Bardou-Boisnier, S. and Caillaud, K. (2015) Les dispositifs informationnels sur les compléments alimentaires: Une affaire de santé publique. L’alimentation, une affaire publique? Questions de communication, 27, 79-104.
[9]  Marzec, A., Skrzypek, M. and Marzec, Z. (2018) Dietary Supplements as a Challenge for Contemporary Public Health: Scale of the Phenomenon, Health Risk, Legal Regulations. Sciendo. Polish Journal of Public Health, 128, 30-35.
[10]  De Villepin, D., Breton, Th., Clément, P., Bertrand, X. and Bussereau, D. (2011) Décret n°2006-352 du 20 Mars 2006 relatif aux compléments alimentaires. NOR: ECOC0500166D. Version consolidée au 24 Avril 2020. Legifrance, le service public de la diffusion des droits.
[11]  Jamal, F.Z. (2016) La consommation des compléments alimentaires au Maroc, 2015. Thèse présentée à l’Université Mohamed 5, Faculté de Médecine et de Pharmacie de Rabat pour l’obtention du Doctorat en Pharmacie, 161 p.
[12]  Thomsen, P.A., Terry, R.D. and Amos, R.J. (1987) Adolescents’ Beliefs about and Reasons for Using Vitamin/Mineral Supplements. Journal of American Dietetic Asso- ciation, 87, 1063-1065.
[13]  Wolfe, R.R. (2000) Protein Supplements and Exercise. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 72, 551S-557S.
[14]  Derbré, S. (2010) Tour d’horizon des compléments alimentaires à base de plantes. Actualités pharmaceutiques, 49, 20-31.
[15]  Parlement Européen (2008) RèGLEMENT (CE) No 178/2002 DU PARLEMENT EUROPéEN ET DU CONSEIL du 28 janvier 2002, (Article 14).,%C3%89tat%20membre%20%C3%A0%20l’autre
[16]  Ronis, M.J.J., Pedersen, K.B. and Watt, J. (2018) Adverse Effects of Nutraceuticals and Dietary Supplements. Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 58, 583- 601.
[17]  Martin, A. (2001) Apports nutritionnels conseillés pour la population française. Tec et Doc, 3ème Edition. (Retirage 2018). Lavoisier, Paris, 438.
[18]  NIH (National Institutes of Health) (2001) Dietary Supplement What You Need to Know. National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda.
[19]  ANSES (Agence nationale de sécurité sanitairede l’alimentation, de l’environne- mentet du travail) (2016) Compléments alimentaires destinés aux sportifs: des risques pour la santé pour des bénéfices incertains.
[20]  Pope Jr., H.G., Wood, R.I., Rogol, A., Nyberg, F., Bowers, L. and Bhasin, S. (2014) Adverse Health Consequences of Performance-Enhancing Drugs: An Endocrine Society Scientific Statement. Endocrine Reviews, 35, 341-375.
[21]  Dwyer, J., Coates, P.M. and Smith, M.J. (2018) Dietary Supplements: Regulatory Challenges and Research Resources. Nutrients, 10, Article No. 41, 24 p.
[22]  Khalfaoui, Y. (2018) Le profil des consommateurs de compléments alimentaires au Maroc.. Thèse de Doctorat de Médecine, présentée à l’Université Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah, Faculté de Médecine et de Pharmacie, Fès, 107 pages.
[23]  Mestaghanmi, H., Labriji, A., Kehailou, F.Z., Mahfoud, F.Z., Battai, M., Jabari, M., M’Touguy, I. and El Amrani, S. (2019) Relation entre obésité, habitudes alimen- taires et hygiène de vie d’une population universitaire de Casablanca, Maroc. American Journal of Innovative Research & Applied Sciences, 9, 153-166.
[24]  Mestaghanmi, H., Labriji, A., M’Touguy, I., Kehailou, F.Z., Idhammou, S., Kobb, N., Mahfoud, F.Z., Ibrahim Khalil, A. and El Amrani, S. (2018) Impact of Eating Habits and Lifestyle on the Oral Health Status of a Casablanca’s Academic Population. Open Access Library Journal, 5, e4967.
[25]  Tsuyoshi, C., Kobayashi, E., Okura, T., Sekimoto, M., Mizuno, H., Saito, M. and Umegak, K. (2020) An Educational Intervention Improved Knowledge of Dietary Supplements in College Students. BMC Public Health, 20, Article No. 633, 12 p.
[26]  Association Médicale Mondiale (AMM) (2013) Déclaration d’Helsinki de L’AMM— Principes éthiques applicables à la recherche médicale impliquant des êtres humains.’Association%20M%C3%A9dicale%20Mondiale%20(AMM,et%20sur%20des%20donn%C3%A9es%20identifiables
[27]  WHO (World Health Organization) (2000) Obesity: Preventing and Managing the Global Epidemic: Report of a WHO Consultation. WHO Technical Report Series No. 894, World Health Organization, Geneva.
[28]  IPAQ (International Physical Activity Questionnaire) (2002) International Physical Activity Questionnaire Short Last 7 Days Self-Administered Format for Use with Young and Middle-Aged Adults (15-69 Years).
[29]  Janus, P. and Regula, J. (2009) Popularnosc suplementów diety wsród mlodziezy. [Popularity of Diet Supplements Determinants of the Use of Dietary Supplements among School Students, among the Young People]. Postepy Techniki Przetwórstwa Spozywczego, 2, 94-98 (in Polish, English Abstract).
[30]  Lieberman, H.R., Marriott, B.P., Williams, C., Judelson, D.A., Glickman, E.L., Geiselman, P.J., Dotson, L. and Mahoney, C.R. (2015) Patterns of Dietary Supplement Use among College Students. Clinical Nutrition, 34, 976-985.
[31]  Sirico, F., Miressi, S., Castaldo, C., Spera, R., Montagnani, S., Di Meglio, F., et al. (2018) Habits and Beliefs Related to Food Supplements: Results of a Survey among Italian Students of Different Education Fields and Levels. PLoS ONE, 13, e0191424.
[32]  CREDOC (Centre de Recherche pour l’Etude et l’Observation des Conditions de Vie) (2012) Consommation de compléments alimentaires en France: profil des consommateurs et contribution à l’équilibre nutritionnel. dans les Cahiers de Nutrition et de Diététique, Flash Info, Synadiet (syndicat national des compléments alimentaires), 2 p.
[33]  Ziegler, P.J., Nelson, J. and Jonnalagadda, S.S. (2003) Use of dietary supplements by elite figure skaters, International journal of sport nutrition and exercise metabolism, 13, 266-276.
[34]  Braun, M. and Venter, I. (2008) Use of Dietary Supplements, and Awareness and Knowledge of the Recommended Fruit and Vegetable Intakes and Consumption of Health Food Store Customers in the Cape Town City Bowl. South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 21, 323-330.
[35]  Dubecq, C., Daniel, Y., Aigle, L. and Bigard, X. (2014) Utilisation des compléments alimentaires à visée ergogénique chez les militaires français: prévalence et modes de consommation lors d’une opération extérieure. Science et Sports, 29, 188-195.
[36]  Grzymislawska, M., Puch, E.A., Zawada, A. and Grzymislawski, M. (2020) Do Nutritional Behaviors Depend on Biological Sex and Cultural Gender? Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine, 29, 165-172, 8 p.
[37]  Soni, M.G., Thurmond, T.S., Miller, E.R., Spriggs, T., Bendich, A. and Omaye, S.T. (2010) Safety of Vitamins and Minerals: Controversies and Perspective. Toxicol Sci, 118, 348-355.
[38]  Bonillo, G. (2019) Les challenges et opportunités des compléments alimentaires. Une étude Harris Interactive à l’occasion du salon Nutriform’ Business Days (Dia- porama).
[39]  Al-Johani, W.M., Al-Dawood, K.M., Abdel Wahab, M.M. and Yousef, H.A. (2018) Consumption of Vitamin and Mineral Supplements and Its Correlates among Medical Students in Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia. Journal of Family and Community Medicine, 25, 169-174.
[40]  Agathe, M. (2018) Les étudiants et leur alimentation. Université de Bretagne Occi- dentale UFR Lettres et Sciences Humaines. Mémoire de Master 1 Mention Psycho- logie Spécialité Représentations sociales, pratiques et interventions. 195 p.
[41]  Kang, H., Joo, H.H., Choi, K.D., Lee. D. and Moon, J. (2017) Complementarity in Dietary Supplements and Foods: Are Supplement User’s Vegetable Eaters? Food & Nutrition Research, 61, Article ID: 1361769.
[42]  Lieberman, H.R. (2007) Cognitive Methods for Assessing Mental Energy. Nutritional Neuroscience, 10, 229-242.
[43]  O’Connor, J. (2006) Mental Energy: Assessing the Mood Dimensions. Nutrition Reviews, 64, S7-S9.
[44]  Bertrais, S., Preziosi, P., Mennen, L., Galan, P., Hercberg, S. and Oppert, J.M. (2004) Sociodemographic and Geographic Correlates of Meeting Current Recommendations for Physical Activity in Middle-Aged French Adults: The Supplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux Antioxydants (SUVIMAX) Study. American Journal of Public Health, 94, 1560-1566.
[45]  Unlu, N. (2016) Surpoids, régimes amaigrissants et produits minceurs: Evaluation, mises en gardes et conseils du pharmacien d’officine. Thèse présentée à l’Université de Lorraine, Faculté de Pharmacie, pour l’obtention du Diplôme de Doctorat en Pharmacie, 109 p.
[46]  Synadiet (Syndicat National des compkements alimentaires) (2016) Prévenir plutôt que guérir: Une urgence sociale, médicale et économique. Dossier de presse, 16 p.
[47]  Devaux, S. and Brisard, M. (2016) Consommation de compléments alimentaires chez les triathlètes: résultats d’une enquête régionale. Nutrition Clinique et Métabo- lisme, 30, 118.
[48]  Soufis, J. (2017) La nutrition des étudiants de première année commune aux études de sante: optimisation de leur cognition. Thèse présentée à l’Université Grenoble Alpes, Faculté de Pharmacie de Grenoble, pour l’obtention du Doctorat en Phar- macie, 124 p.
[49]  Ulbricht, C., Chao, W., Rusie-Seamon, E., Weissner, W. and Woods, J. (2008) Clinical Evidence of Herb-Drug Interactions: A Systematic Review by the Natural Standard Research Collaboration. Current Drug Metabolism, 9, 1063-1120.
[50]  Eisenberg, D., Kessler, R., Foster, C., Norlock, F., Calkins, D. and Deblanco, T. (1993) Unconventional medicine in the United States, The New England Journal of Medicine, 28, 246-252.
[51]  Al Tamimi, J.Z. (2019) Awareness of the Consumption of Dietary Supplements among Students in a University in Saudi Arabia. Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism, 2019, Article ID: 4641768, 10 p.
[52]  Yamamiya, Y., Cash, T.F., Melnyk, S.E., Posavac, H.D. and Posavac, S.S. (2005) Women’s Exposure to Thin-and-Beautiful Media Images: Body Image Effects of Media-Ideal Internalization and Impact-Reduction Interventions. Body Image, 2, 74-80.
[53]  Yarasheski, K., Zachwieja, J.J. and Bier, D.M. (1993) Acute Effects of Resistance Exercise on Muscle Protein Synthesis Rate in Young and Elderly Men and Women. American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism, 265, E210-E214.
[54]  Sohrabi, C., Alsafi, Z., O’Neill, N., Khan, M., Kerwan, A., Al-Jabir, A., Iosifidis, C. and Agha, R. (2020) World Health Organization Declares Global Emergency: A Review of the 2019 Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19). International Journal of Surgery, 26, 71-76.
[55]  Zavascki, A. and Falci, D.R. (2020) Clinical Characteristics of Covid-19 in China. World, 27, Article No. 33.
[56]  AFSSA (Agence française de sécurité sanitaire des aliments) (2009) étude indivi- duelle nationale des consommations alimentaires 2 (INCA 2) 2006-2007. Agence française de sécurité sanitaire des aliments, Nancy, 228 p.
[57]  Kobayashi, E., Sato, Y., Umegaki, K. and Chiba, T. (2017) The Prevalence of Dietary Supplement Use among College Students: A Nationwide Survey in Japan. Nutrients, 9, Article No. 1250.
[58]  Balzo, V.D., Vitiello, V., Germani, A., Donini, L.M., Poggiogalle, E. and Pinto, A. (2014) A Cross-Sectional Survey on Dietary Supplements Consumption among Italian Teenagers. PLoS ONE, 9, e100508.
[59]  Institut national de la santé et de la recherche médicale (Inserm) (2008) Activité physique: Contextes et effets sur la santé. Rapport. Vol. 12, Les éditions Inserm, Paris, 811 p.
[60]  Kh, K. (2020) Fort engouement pour les équipements sportifs à cause des mesures de restriction. Media 24, 5 octobre 2020 à 13h46, Modifié 11 avril 2021 à 2h48.
[61]  Kennedy Eileen, T., Hanqi, L. and Houser, R.F. (2013) Dietary Supplement Use Pattern of U.S. Adult Population in the 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Ecology of Food and Nutrition, 52, 76-84.
[62]  Pouchieu, C., Lévy, R., Faure, C., Andreeva, V., Galan, P., Hercberg, S. and Touvier, M. (2013) P041 Consommation de compléments alimentaires pendant la grossesse et facteurs socioéconomiques, alimentaires et de mode de vie associés. C. Nutrition Clinique et Métabolisme, 27, S77-S78.
[63]  Pouchieu, C. (2014) Compléments alimentaires: consommation et facteurs associés en population générale et dans des groupes spécifiques—modulation du risque de cancer. Thèse présentée à l’Université paris 13 《équipe de recherche en épidémi- ologie nutritionnelle》 pour obtenir le grade de Doctorat de l’Université Paris 13, Discipline: Epidémiologie-Santé Publique, 264 p.
[64]  Bailey, R.L., Gahche, J.J., Miller, P.R. and Dwyer, J.T. (2013) Why US Adults Use Dietary Supplements. JAMA Internal Medicine, 173, 355-361.
[65]  Nichter, M., Thompson, J.J. (2006) For My Wellness, Not Just My Illness: North Americans’ Use of Dietary Supplements. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry, 30, 175- 222.
[66]  Mestaghanmi, H., Labriji, A., Kehailou, F.Z., Martaj, M., M’Touguy, I., Jabari, M., Kaoutar, S. and El Amrani, S. (2020) Consumption of Light Products and Prevalence of Obesity among a Population of Academics in Casablanca, Morocco. International Journal of Advances in Scientific Research and Engineering, 6, 150-165.
[67]  Burnett, A.J., Katherine, M., Livingstone, I.D., Woods, J.L. and McNaughton, S.A. (2017) Dietary Supplement Use among Australian Adults: Findings from the 2011- 2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey. Nutrients, 9, Article No. 1248, 12 p.
[68]  Chiou, W., Yang, C. and Wan, C.S. (2011) Ironic Effects of Dietary Supplementation: Illusory Invulnerability Created by Taking Dietary Supplements Licenses Health- Risk Behaviors. Psychological Science, 22, 1081-1086.
[69]  Khelafa, S. (2013) Les prévalences du tabagisme et de la toxicomanie en milieu scolaire à Fès: Enquête auprès de 1070 élèves. Thèse présentée à l’Université Sidi Mohammed Ben Abdellah faculté de médecine et de pharmacie FES, pour l’obten- tion du diplôme du Doctorat en Médecine, 79 p.
[70]  Zerrouq, B. (2016) Profil Epidémiologique et Toxicologique de l’Usage des Sub- stances Psychoactives et des Comportements Suicidaires chez les Adolescents Maro- cains. Thèse présentée à Université Sidi Mohammed Ben Abdellah, Faculté des Sciences Dhar El Mahraz, Pour l’obtention du Doctorat en Physiologie, Pharmacologie, Epidé- miologie & Santé Environnementale, 203 p.
[71]  Beck, F., Legleye, S., Guilbert, P. and Pretti-Watel, P. (2005) Les usages de produits psychoactifs des étudiants. Psychotropes, 11, 31-51.
[72]  National Institutes of Health (NIH) (2020) Common Comorbidities with Substance Use Disorders Research Report Part 1: The Connection between Substance Use Disorders and Mental Illness. National Institutes of Health, Bethesda.
[73]  Dupin, H. (1992) Alimentation et nutrition humaine. Esf Editeur, Paris, Amazon France. 1533 p.
[74]  Mursu, J., Robien, K., Harnack, I.J., Park, K. and Jacobs, J.R. (2011) Dietary Supplements and Mortality Rates in Older Women: The Iowa Women’s Health Study. Archives of Internal Medicine, 171, 1625-1633.
[75]  Rizos, E.C., Ntzani, E.E, Bika, F., Kostapanos, M. and Elisaf, M.S. (2012) Association between oméga-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation and Risk of Major Cardiovascular Disease Events: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. JAMA, 308, 1024-1033.
[76]  Haller, C., Kearney, T., Bent, S., Ko, R., Benowitz, N. and Olson, K. (2008) Dietary Supplement Adverse Events: Report of a One-Year Poison Center Surveillance Project. Journal of Medical Toxicology, 4, 84-92.
[77]  ANSES (Agence nationale de sécurité sanitaire de l’alimentation, de l’environne- ment et du travail) (2016) Compléments alimentaires destinés aux sportifs: Des risques pour la santé pour des bénéfices incertains.
[78]  Fortmann, S.P., Burda, B.U., Senger, C.A. and Whitlock, E.P. (2013) Vitamin and Mineral Supplements in the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer: An Updated Systemic Evidence Review for the US. Preventative Services Task Force. Annals of Internal Medicine, 159, 824-834.
[79]  Schwingshackl, L., Boeing, H., Stelmach-Mardas, M., Gottschald, M., Dietrich, S., Hoffmann, G. and Chaimani, A. (2017) Dietary Supplements and Risk of Cause- Specific Death, Cardiovascular Disease, and Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta- Analysis of Primary Prevention Trials. Advances in Nutrition, 8, 27-39.
[80]  Gombart, A.F., Pierre, A. and Maggini, S. (2020) A Review of Micronutrients and the Immune System-Working in Harmony to Reduce the Risk of Infection. Nutrients, 12, Article No. 236.
[81]  Martineau, A.R., Jolliffe, D.A., Hooper, R.L., Greenberg, L., Aloia, J.F., Bergman, P., Dubnov-Raz, G., Esposito, S., Ganmaa, D., Ginde, A.A., et al. (2017) Vitamin D Supplementation to Prevent Acute Respiratory Tract Infections: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Individual Participant Data. BMJ, 356, i6583.
[82]  Di Matteo, G., Spano, M., Grosso, M., Salvo, A., Ingallina, C., Russo, M., Ritieni, A. and Mannina, L. (2020) Food and COVID-19: Preventive/Co-therapeutic Strategies Explored by Current Clinical Trials and in Silico Studies. Foods, 9, Article No. 1036, 18 p.
[83]  Maciej, R. and Grzegorczyk, K. (2012) Adverse Effects of Antioxidative Vitamins. International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 25, 105- 121.
[84]  Mulholland, C.A. and Benford, D.J. (2007) What Is Known about the Safety of Multivitamin-Multimineral Supplements for the Generally Healthy Population? Theoretical Basis for Harm. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 85, 318S-322S.
[85]  Bergeron, M.F., Senchina, D.S., Burke, L.M., Stear, S.J. and Castell, L.M. (2010) A-Z of Nutritional Supplements: Dietary Supplements, Sports Nutrition Foods and Ergogenic Aids for Health and Performance, Part 7. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 44, 389-391.
[86]  Condemine-Piron, C. (2008) D’une analyse du risque sanitaire et sportif des con- sommations de compléments alimentaires à la mise en place d’un dispositif de nutrivigilance pilote à Montpellier. AMPD Languedoc Roussillon. Lettre d’Actua- lités de Février 2008.
[87]  Canter, P.H. and Ernst, E. (2004) Herbal Supplement Use by Persons Aged over 50 Years in Britain: Frequently Used Herbs, Concomitant Use of Herbs, Nutritional Supplements and Prescription Drugs, Rate of Informing Doctors and Potential for Negative Interactions. Drugs and Aging, 21, 597-605.
[88]  Karavolos, S., Reynolds, M., Panagiotopoulou, N., McEleny, K., Scally, M. and Quinton, R. (2015) Male Central Hypogonadism Secondary to Exogenous Androgens: A Review of the Drugs and Protocols Highlighted by the Online Community of Users for Prevention and/or Mitigation of Adverse Effects. Clinical Endocrinology, 82, 624-632.
[89]  Rahnema, C.D., Lipshultz, L.I., Crosnoe, L.E., Kovac, J.R. and Kim, E.D. (2014) Anabolic Steroid-Induced Hypogonadism: Diagnosis and Treatment. Fertil Steril, 101, 1271- 1279.


comments powered by Disqus

Contact Us


WhatsApp +8615387084133

WeChat 1538708413