All Title Author
Keywords Abstract

Publish in OALib Journal
ISSN: 2333-9721
APC: Only $99


Venomous Stings and Bites in the Tropics (Malaysia): Review (Non-Snake Related)

DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1107230, PP. 1-24

Subject Areas: Zoology, Environmental Sciences, Toxicology

Keywords: Venom, Toxins, Tropical, Malaysia, Bite

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib


The success in conservation and increase in number of nature reserves resulted in repopulation of wildlife across the country. Whereas areas which are not conserved experience deforestation and destruction of animal’s natural habitat. Both of these scenarios predispose mankind to the encounter of animals, some of which carry toxins and cause significant harm. This review dwells into the envenomation by organisms from the land and sea, excluding snakes which are discussed separately. Rapid recognition of the organism and rapid response may aid in further management and changes the prognosis of victims.

Cite this paper

Er, X. Y. , Arief, I. D. J. , Shajahan, R. , Arief, F. J. and Pillai, N. (2021). Venomous Stings and Bites in the Tropics (Malaysia): Review (Non-Snake Related). Open Access Library Journal, 8, e7230. doi:


[1]  Nelsen, D.R., Nisani, Z., Cooper, A.M., Fox, G.A., Gren, E.C., Corbit, A.G., et al. (2014) Poisons, Toxungens, and Venoms: Redefining and Classifying Toxic Biological Secretions and the Organisms That Employ Them. Biological Reviews, 89, 450-465.
[2]  Hodgson, E. (2012) Chapter Fourteen: Toxins and Venoms. In: Ernest, H., Ed., Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science, Vol. 112, Academic Press, Cambridge, 373-415.
[3]  Mebs, D. (2002) Venomous and Poisonous Animals: A Handbook for Biologists, Toxicologists and Toxinologists, Physicians and Pharmacists. MedPharm, Guildford.
[4]  Magill, A.J., Strickland, G.T., Maguire, J.H., Ryan, E.T. and Solomon, T. (2012) Hunter’s Tropical Medicine and Emerging Infectious Disease. Elsevier Health Sciences, Amsterdam.
[5]  Berthé, R. (n.d.) Spitting Behaviour and Fang Morphology of Spitting Cobras.
[6]  Fernandez, I., Valladolid, G., Varon, J. and Sternbach, G. (2011) Encounters with Venomous Sea-Life. The Journal of Emergency Medicine, 40, 103-112.
[7]  Lotan, A., Fishman, L., Loya, Y. and Zlotkin, E. (1995) Delivery of a Nematocyst Toxin. Nature, 375, Article No. 456.
[8]  Mäthger, L.M., Bell, G.R.R., Kuzirian, A.M., Allen, J.J. and Hanlon, R.T. (2012) How Does the Blue-Ringed Octopus (Hapalochlaena lunulata) Flash Its Blue Rings? Journal of Experimental Biology, 215, 3752-3757.
[9]  World Health Organization (2003) Guidelines for Safe Recreational Water Environments: Coastal and Fresh Waters. World Health Organization, Geneva.
[10]  Snodgrass, R. (n.d.) Textbook of Arthropod Anatomy. Cornell University Press, New York.
[11]  Klaassen, C.D. and Amdur, M.O. (1996) Casarett and Doull’s Toxicology: The Basic Science of Poisons. McGraw-Hill, New York.
[12] (2020) ITIS Standard Report Page: Arthropoda.
[13]  Goldfrank, L., Flomenbaum, N. and Lewin, N. (2004) Goldfrank’s Toxicologic Emergencies, ed 3. Annals of Emergency Medicine, 242, 149.
[14]  Tweedie, M. (1995) Poisnonous Animals of Malaysia. Graham Brash, Singapore.
[15]  Muslimin, M., Wilson, J.-J., Ghazali, A.-R.M., Braima, K.A., Jeffery, J., Wan-Nor, F., et al. (2015) First Report of Brown Widow Spider Sightings in Peninsular Malaysia and Notes on Its Global Distribution. Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases, 21, 11.
[16]  Vetter, R. (2021) Brown Widow Spider. Center for Invasive Species Research.
[17]  Kim, C.M. (2013) Apitherapy—Bee Venom Therapy. In: Grassberger, M., Sherman, R., Gileva, O., Kim, C. and Mumcuoglu, K., Eds., Biotherapy—History, Principles and Practice, Springer, Dordrecht, 77-112.
[18]  Xie, C., Xu, S., Ding, F., Xie, M., Lv, J., Yao, J., et al. (2013) Clinical Features of Severe Wasp Sting Patients with Dominantly Toxic Reaction: Analysis of 1091 Cases. PLoS ONE, 8, e83164.
[19]  Farrar, J., Hotez, P., Junghanss, T., Kang, G., Lalloo, D. and White, N.J. (2013) Manson’s Tropical Diseases E-Book. Elsevier Health Sciences, Amsterdam.
[20]  Rayamane, A., Kumar, M.P., Kishor, D.G., Dayayanada, R. and Saraf, A. (2014) Honey Bee Stings and Anaphylaxis: Review. Journal of Forensic Medicine, Science and Law, 23, 1-7.
[21]  Watters, M.R. and Stommel, E.W. (2004) Marine Neurotoxins: Envenomations and Contact Toxins. Current Treatment Options in Neurology, 6, 115-123.
[22]  Jouiaei, M., Yanagihara, A.A., Madio, B., Nevalainen, T.J., Alewood, P.F. and Fry, B.G. (2015) Ancient Venom Systems: A Review on Cnidaria Toxins. Toxins, 7, 2251-2271.
[23]  Burnett, J.W., Fenner, P.J. and Rifkin, J.F. (1996) Venomous and Poisonous Marine Animals: A Medical and Biological Handbook. University of New South Wales Press, Randwick.
[24]  Watters, M.R. (2005) Tropical Marine Neurotoxins: Venoms to Drugs. Seminars in Neurology, 25, 278-289.
[25]  Cormier, S.M. (1981) Physalia Venom Mediates Histamine Release from Mast Cells. Journal of Experimental Zoology, 218, 117-120.
[26]  Mariottini, G.L. and Pane, L. (2013) Cytotoxic and Cytolytic Cnidarian Venoms. A Review on Health Implications and Possible Therapeutic Applications. Toxins, 6, 108-151.
[27]  Thangaraj, S., Bragadeeswaran, S., Sri Kumaran, N. and Suguna, A. (2016) Analgesic and CNS Depressant Activities of Sea Anemone Heteractis Aurora Nematocyst Toxin. Central Nervous System Agents in Medicinal Chemistry, 16, 162-172.
[28]  Fenner, P., Williamson, J., Callanan, V. and Audley, I. (1985) Further Understanding of, and a New Treatment for, “Irukandji” (Carukia barnesi) Stings. Medical Journal of Australia, 145, 569-574.
[29]  Berling, I. and Isbister, G. (2015) Marine Envenomations. Australian Family Physician, 44, 28-32.
[30]  Watters, M. and Cannard, K. (1999) Marine Neurotoxins. In: Chopra, J.S. and Sawhney, I.M.S., Eds., Neurology in Tropics, Churchill Livingstone, New Delhi, 45-68.
[31]  Carrette, T.J., Cullen, P., Little, M., Peiera, P.L. and Seymour, J.E. (2002) Temperature Effects on Box Jellyfish Venom: A Possible Treatment for Envenomed Patients? Medical Journal of Australia, 177, 654-655.
[32]  Tonseth, K.A., Andersen, T.S., Pripp, A.H. and Karlsen, H.E. (2012) Prophylactic Treatment of Jellyfish Stings—A Randomised Trial. Tidsskrift for den Norske laegeforening: Tidsskrift for praktisk medicin, ny raekke, 132, 1446-1449.
[33]  Montgomery, L., Seys, J. and Mees, J. (2016) To Pee, or Not to Pee: A Review on Envenomation and Treatment in European Jellyfish Species. Marine Drugs, 14, Article No. 127.
[34]  Tu, A. (1991) Handbook of Natural Toxins: Reptile Venoms and Toxins. CRC Press, Boca Raton.
[35]  Taub, A.M. and Elliott, W.B. (1964) Some Effects of Snake Venoms on Mitochondria. Toxicon, 2, 87-92.
[36]  Winkel, K. and Nimorakiotakis, B. (2003) Marine Envenomations. Part 2—Other Marine Envenomations. Australian Family Physician, 32, 975-979.
[37]  Kumar, T., Jayaraman, G., Lee, C.S., Arunkumar, A., Sivaraman, T., Samuel, D., et al. (1997) Snake Venom Cardiotoxins-Structure, Dynamics, Function and Folding. Journal of Biomolecular Structure and Dynamics, 15, 431-463.
[38]  Tan, N.H. (2015) The Medically Important Poisonous Snakes of Malaysia.
[39]  Baldé, M.C., Chippaux, J.-P., Boiro, M.Y., Stock, R.P. and Massougbodji, A. (2013) Use of Antivenoms for the Treatment of Envenomation by Elapidae Snakes in Guinea, Sub-Saharan Africa. Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases, 19, Article No. 6.
[40]  Schaumburg, H.H., Spencer, P.S. and Ludolph, A. (2000) Experimental and Clinical Neurotoxicology. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
[41]  Watters, M.R. (1995) Organic Neurotoxins in Seafoods. Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery, 97, 119-124.
[42]  Stommel, E.W. and Watters, M.R. (2004) Marine Neurotoxins: Ingestible Toxins. Current Treatment Options in Neurology, 6, 105-114.
[43]  Rivera, V.R., Poli, M.A. and Bignami, G.S. (1995) Prophylaxis and Treatment with a Monoclonal Antibody of Tetrodotoxin Poisoning in Mice. Toxicon, 33, 1231-1237.
[44]  Burnett, J. (1998) Aquatic Adversaries: Stonefish. Cutis, 62, 269-270.
[45]  Khoo, H.E. (2002) Bioactive Proteins from Stonefish Venom. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology, 29, 802-806.
[46]  Darlene, F.O. and Phee-Kheng, C. (2013) Hot Water Immersion as a Treatment for Stonefish Sting: A Case Report. Malaysian Family Physician, 8, 28-32.
[47]  Warrell, D.A. (2016) Venomous Animals. Medicine, 44, 120-124.
[48]  Auerbach, P.S. (1991) Marine Envenomations. The New England Journal of Medicine, 325, 486-493.
[49]  Clark, R.F., Girard, R.H., Rao, D., Ly, B.T. and Davis, D.P. (2007) Stingray Envenomation: A Retrospective Review of Clinical Presentation and Treatment in 119 Cases. The Journal of Emergency Medicine, 33, 33-37.
[50]  Gelman, Y., Kong, E.L. and Murphy-Lavoie, H.M. (2019) Sea Urchin Toxicity. StatPearls Publishing, Treasure Island.


comments powered by Disqus

Contact Us