For farmers to satisfy the food, nutrition and income demands on groundnut in the South Western Agro-Ecological Zone (SWAEZ), the accessibility, and adaptability of economically viable and high performing varietal and non-varietal technologies must increase to enhance production. Field experiments to evaluate the agronomic performance of advanced lines of improved nine AGRA red, nine Spanish and six Serenut varieties were concurrently carried out on-station at the Mbarara Zonal Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MbaZARDI) in Mbarara District, Uganda. The AGRA red and Spanish groundnut lines showed high levels of rosette mosaic disease (GRD) tolerance in the zone. The short AGRA and Spanish lines were highly resistant to leaf spots, while the tall lines were highly susceptible to leaf spots, and not drought tolerant. The late maturing AGRA lines (SGV 99241 and SGV 99046), yielded better than the early maturing lines (SGV 99065 and SGV 99043). The best performing AGRA lines identified for promotion in the zone were SGV 99241, 99046, 99064, 99048, 99019 and 99032. The most leaf spot-resistant Spanish line was ICGV SM 02501, but lines ICGV SM 01514, ICGV SM 03590, ICGV SM 01515 and ICGV SM 01502 displayed varying levels of resistance during the two seasons of 2015. Spanish lines: ICGV SM 01502, ICGV SM 99568, ICGV SM 01504, ICGV SM 01510, ICGV SM 99555, ICGV SM 01514 and ICGV SM 01515 were suitable for growing in the SWAEZ. Spanish lines that were either highly resistant or resistant to groundnut rosette virus disease (GRD), unfortunately, were either moderately-susceptible or susceptible to the leaf spot diseases. Therefore, the tested Spanish lines were only suitable to environments that are prone to GRD but free of the leaf spot pathogens. AGRA red lines SGV 99241, SGV 99046, SGV 99064, SGV 99048, SGV 99019 and SGV 99032 were the best performing. Of the Serenut varieties evaluated, Serenut 5R was early maturing and rosette mosaic virus tolerant. Apart from Serenut 1; Serenut 2, 3R, 4R, 5R and 6T displayed very high levels of tolerance to rosette mosaic virus disease. The combination of moderate resistance (MR)-resistance (R) and high resistance (HR) in the AGRA red lines and Serenut varieties to leaf spots and rosette mosaic virus, respectively, indicated an effective control measure of the major groundnut disease problems in the zone. The integration of moderate-resistance to high disease resistance, high drought tolerance and high yielding potential in several Serenut, AGRA red and Spanish lines can enhance groundnut production if proper agronomic management practices and timely planting are applied.
Cite this paper
Kankwatsa, P. , Turyagyenda, L. , Kyomugisha, M. and Okello, K. D. (2021). Improved Groundnut Performance under Natural Field Leaf Spot and Rosette Mosaic Virus Infections in the South Western Agro-Ecological Zone of Uganda
. Open Access Library Journal, 8, e7200. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1107200.
Vanham, D., Mekonnen, M.M. and Hoekstra, A.Y. (2020) Treenuts and Groundnuts in the EAT-Lancet Reference Diet: Concerns Regarding Sustainable Water Use. Global Food Security, 24, Article ID: 100357.
Savage, G.P. and Keenan, J.I. (1994) The Composition and Nutritive Value of Groundnut Kernels. In: Smartt, J., Ed., The Groundnut Crop, Springer, Dordrecht, 173-213. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-011-0733-4_6
Achola, E., Tukamuhabwa, P., Adriko, J., Edema, R., Mwale, S.E., Gibson, P., Naveen, P., Okul, V., Michael, D. and Okello, D.K. (2017) Composition and Variation of Fatty Acids among Groundnut Cultivars in Uganda. African Crop Science Journal, 25, 291-299. https://doi.org/10.4314/acsj.v25i3.3
Chaudhary, S., Chaturvedi, S. and Dhyani, V.C. (2020) Effect of Crop Diversification and Residue Management Techniques on Yield Attributes, Yield and Soil Nutrient. International Journal of Chemical Studies, 8, 1107-1111.
Bado, B.V., Bationo, A., Lompo, F., Traore, K., Sedogo, M.P. and Cescas, M.P. (2012) Long Term Effects of Crop Rotations with Fallow or Groundnut on Soil Fertility and Succeeding Sorghum Yields in the Guinea Savannah of West Africa. In: Bationo, A., Waswa, B., Kihara, J., Adolwa, I., Vanlauwe, B. and Saidou, K., Eds., Lessons Learned from Long-Term Soil Fertility Management Experiments in Africa, Springer, Dordrecht, 27-40. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-2938-4_2
Page, W.W., Busolo-Bulafu, C.M., vander Merwe, P.J.A. and Chancellor, T.C.B. (2002) Groundnut Manual for Uganda: Recommended Groundnut Production Practices for Smallholder Farmers in Uganda. Natural Resources Institute, Chatham, UK, 1-12.
Anco, D.J., Thomas, J.S., Jordan, D.L., Shew, B.B., Monfort, W.S., Mehl, H.L., Small, I.M., Wright, D.L., Tillman, B.L., Dufault, N.S. and Hagan, A.K. (2020) Peanut Yield Loss in the Presence of Defoliation Caused by Late or Early Leaf Spot. Plant Disease, 104, 1390-1399. https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-11-19-2286-RE
USDA (2019) World Agricultural Production U.S. Department of Agriculture Foreign Agricultural Service/Office of Global Analysis International Production Assessment Division (IPAD).
Ntakyo, P., Kankwatsa, P., Muzira, R., Kemigabo, C., Lagu, C. and Nabasumba, D. (2012) Farming Systems and Livelihood Analysis in South Western Uganda Agro-Ecological Zone. Technical Report, Mbarara Zonal Agricultural Research and Development Institute, Uganda, 92.
Akpo, E., Muricho, G., Lukurugu, G.A., Opie, H., Ojiewo, C.O. and Varshney, R. (2020) Legume Seed Production for Sustainable Seed Supply and Crop Productivity: Case of Groundnut in Tanzania and Uganda. Journal of Crop Improvement, 34, 518-539. https://doi.org/10.1080/15427528.2020.1740368
Daudi, H., Shimelis, H., Laing, M., Okori, P. and Mponda, O. (2018) Groundnut Production Constraints, Farming Systems, and Farmer-Preferred Traits in Tanzania. Journal of Crop Improvement, 32, 812-828.
Dalla, A.A., Vihi, S.K., Jesse, B. and Tor, L.G. (2020) Cost and Returns Analysis of Groundnut Production in Qua’an Pan Local Government Area of Plateau State, Nigeria. Asian Journal of Research in Crop Science, 5, 31-40.
Subrahmanyam, P., McDonald, D., Waliyar, E., Reddy, L.J., Nigam, S.N., Gibbons, R.W., Ramanatha Rao, V., Singh, A.K., Pande, S., Reddy, P.M. and Subba Rao, P.V. (1995) Screening Methods and Sources of Resistance to Rust and Late Leaf Spot of Groundnut. International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, Patancheru, Information Bulletin No. 47.
Mukibi, J.K. (1982) Effect of Intercropping on Some Diseases of Beans and Groundnuts: Summary. In Intercropping: Proceedings of the Second Symposium on Intercropping in Semi-Arid Areas, Morogoro, 4-7 August 1980, 168 p.
McDonald, D., Subrahmanyam, P., Gibbons, R.W. and Smith, D.H. (1985) Early and Late Leaf Spots of Groundnut. International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, Patancheru, Information Bulletin No. 21.
Appiah, A.S., Offei, S.K., Tegg, R.S., and Wilson, C.R. (2016) Varietal Response to Groundnut Rosette Disease and the First Report of Groundnut Ring Spot Virus in Ghana. Plant Disease, 100, 946-952. https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-07-15-0838-RE
Kakeeto, R., Melis, R., Biruma, M. and Sibiya, J. (2020) Gene Action Governing the Inheritance of Drought Tolerance and Selected Agronomic Traits in Ugandan Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Lines under Drought Environment. Euphytica, 216, Article No. 1. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10681-019-2539-6
Kakeeto, R., Sibiya, J., Melis, R. and Biruma, M. (2019) Farmers’ Perceptions of Drought and Other Production Constraints, Drought Mitigation Options and Their Implications for Groundnut Breeding in Uganda. Indian Journal of Agricultural Research, 53, 45-50. https://doi.org/10.18805/IJARe.A-337
Kakeeto, R., Baguma, S.D., Subire, R., Kaheru, J., Karungi, E. and Biruma, M. (2019) Genetic Variation and Heritability of Kernel Physical Quality Traits and Their Association with Selected Agronomic Traits in Groundnut (Arachis hypogeae) Genotypes from Uganda. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 14, 597-603.
Mau, Y.S. and Ndiwa, A.S.S. (2018) Field Evaluation of Late Leaf Spot and Leaf Rust Resistance and the Associated Yield Losses in Indonesian Groundnut Genotypes. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences, 17, 134-141.
Waliyar, F., Kumar, P.L., Ntare, B.R., Monyo, E., Nigam, S.N., Reddy, A.S. and Diallo, A.T. (2007) A Century of Research on Groundnut Rosette Disease and Its Management. International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, Patancheru, Information Bulletin No. 75.
Luo, M., Dang, P., Bausher, M.G., Holbrook, C.C., Lee, R.D., Lynch, R.E. and Guo, B.Z. (2005) Identification of Transcripts Involved in Resistance Responses to Leaf Spot Disease Caused by Cercosporidium personatum in Peanut (Arachis hypogaea). Phytopathology, 95, 381-387. https://doi.org/10.1094/PHYTO-95-0381
Jelliffe, J.L., Bravo-Ureta, B.E., Deom, C.M. and Okello, D.K. (2018) Adoption of High-Yielding Groundnut Varieties: The Sustainability of a Farmer-Led Multiplication-Dissemination Program in Eastern Uganda. Sustainability, 10, 1597.
Kassie, M., Shiferaw, B. and Muricho, G. (2011) Agricultural Technology, Crop Income, and Poverty Alleviation in Uganda. World development, 39, 1784-1795.
Mugisha, J., Ogwal-o, R., Ekere, W. and Ekiyar, V. (2004) Adoption of IPM Groundnut Production Technologies in Eastern Uganda. African Crop Science Journal, 12, 383-391. https://doi.org/10.4314/acsj.v12i4.27900
Mohammed, K.E., Afutu, E., Odong, T.L., Okello, D.K., Nuwamanya, E., Grigon, O. and Okori, P. (2018) Assessment of Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Genotypes for Yield and Resistance to Late Leaf Spot and Rosette Diseases. Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, 21, 1-13.
Okello, D.K., Deom, C.M., Puppala, N., Monyo, E. and Bravo-Ureta, B. (2018) Registration of ‘Serenut 6T’ Groundnut. Journal of Plant Registrations, 12, 43-47.
Okello, D.K., Deom, C.M., Puppala, N., Monyo, E. and Bravo-Ureta, B. (2016) Registration of ‘Serenut 5R’ Groundnut. Journal of Plant Registrations, 10, 115-118.
Chaudhari, S., Khare, D., Patil, S.C., Sundravadana, S., Variath, M.T., Sudini, H.K., Manohar, S.S., Bhat, R.S. and Pasupuleti, J. (2019) Genotype × Environment Studies on Resistance to Late Leaf Spot and Rust in Genomic Selection Training Population of Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.). Frontiers in Plant Science, 10, 1338.
Kankam, F., Kojo, K.Y. and Addai, I.K. (2020) Evaluation of Groundnut (Arachis Hypogea L.) Mutant Genotypes for Resistance against Major Diseases of Groundnut. Pakistan Journal of Phytopathology, 32, 61-69.
Okello, D.K., Akello, L.B., Tukamuhabwa, P., Odong, T.L., Adriko, J. and Deom, C. M. (2014) Groundnut Rosette Disease Symptoms Types Distribution and Management of the Disease in Uganda. African Journal of Plant Science, 8, 153-163.