All Title Author
Keywords Abstract

Publish in OALib Journal
ISSN: 2333-9721
APC: Only $99


Current Trends in the Use of Cannabis sativa: Beyond Recreational and Medicinal Applications

DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1107132, PP. 1-15

Subject Areas: Environmental Chemistry

Keywords: Medical Marijuana, Carcinogenicity, Cannabis, Legalization, SARS-Cov-2 Management

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib


Cannabis sativa finds application in the medical field as an opioid (medical marijuana) and as a recreational drug despite the fact that it is a prohibited drug substance in many countries. Currently, there are reports on the increasing trends in the number of deaths associated with the use of marijuana. Regardless of these dangers, some countries across the world have legalized the sale and use of marijuana for recreational and medicinal purposes. For these reasons, this review seeks to explore the emerging trends through which marijuana is consumed and the chemicals produced in the course of its use. Furthermore, the use of Cannabis sativa as medicine especially in the management of emerging diseases such a Corona virus disease-2019 (COVID-19) and the perceived harms have been reviewed. Relevant literature was identified from database search published between the period 2012 and 2020 in PubMed, Crossref, Google scholar, Cochrane and Web of Science. The articles were considered relevant if they addressed marijuana (Cannabis sativa) use, its impacts on users and non-users, carcinogenicity, medicinal value and COVID-19 management. A number of methods by which marijuana is used have been identified with each method producing different results among users. The chemicals released during smoking of marijuana and their carcinogenic potential and health effects are reported in this work. Further, Cannabis sativa has found significant use in the management of cancer and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/ AIDS) to alleviate pain and improve appetite, respectively. Although marijuana is regarded as a prohibited and toxic drug substance, there is limited documentation in literature that extensively reports on its toxicological mechanisms especially its role as a cancer causing agent. On the contrary, most scientific studies have reported its use for medical reasons. Accordingly, there is need for further research on cannabis application as a medicinal drug, investigation on its possibility in the managing of the severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus-2 (SARS-Cov-2) and its epidemiological concerns. Campaigns for the legalization of cannabis for use in clinical medicine are fundamentally recommended but must take into account possible toxicological concerns, health ethics and psychotic problems.

Cite this paper

Omare, M. O. , Kibet, J. K. , Cherutoi, J. K. and Kengara, F. O. (2021). Current Trends in the Use of Cannabis sativa: Beyond Recreational and Medicinal Applications. Open Access Library Journal, 8, e7132. doi:


[1]  Archie, S.R. and Cucullo, L. (2019) Harmful Effects of Smoking Cannabis: A Cerebrovascular and Neurological Perspective. Frontiers in Pharmacology, 10, Article No. 1481.
[2]  Borgan, F., Beck, K., Butler, E., McCutcheon, R., Veronese, M., Vernon, A., et al. (2019) The Effects of Cannabinoid 1 Receptor Compounds on Memory: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review across Species. Psychopharmacology, 236, 3257- 3270.
[3]  Köguel, C.C., López-Pelayo, H., Balcells-Olivero, M.M., Colom, J. and Gual, A. (2018) Constituyentes psicoactivos del cannabis y sus implicaciones clínicas: una revisión sistemática. Adicciones, 30, 140-151.
[4]  Cohen, K., Kapitány-Fövény, M., Mama, Y., Arieli, M., Rosca, P., Demetrovics, Z., et al. (2017) The Effects of Synthetic Cannabinoids on Executive Function. Psychopharmacology, 234, 1121-1134.
[5]  NIDA (2021) Is Marijuana Safe and Effective as Medicine?
[6]  Ribeiro, L.I. and Ind, P.W. (2016) Effect of Cannabis Smoking on Lung Function and Respiratory Symptoms: A Structured Literature Review. NPJ Primary Care Respiratory Medicine, 26, Article No. 16071.
[7]  Koren, G. and Cohen, R. (2020) Medicinal Use of Cannabis in Children and Pregnant Women. Rambam Maimonides Medical Journal, 11, e0005.
[8]  Wang, B., Kovalchuk, A., Li, D., Ilnytskyy, Y., Kovalchuk, I. and Kovalchuk, O. (2020) In Search of Preventative Strategies: Novel Anti-Inflammatory High-CBD Cannabis Sativa Extracts Modulate ACE2 Expression in COVID-19 Gateway Tissues. Aging (Albany NY), 12, 22425-22444.
[9]  Hoffmann, M., Kleine-Weber, H., Schroeder, S., Krüger, N., Herrler, T, Erichsen, S., et al. (2020) SARS-CoV-2 Cell Entry Depends on ACE2 and TMPRSS2 and Is Blocked by a Clinically Proven Protease Inhibitor. Cell, 181, 271-280.E8.
[10]  Palmatier, R.W., Houston, M.B. and Hulland, J. (2018) Review Articles: Purpose, Process, and Structure. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 46, 1-5.
[11]  Williams, K. (2014) The Different Ways to Smoke and Consume Cannabis.
[12]  Healthiest, B.J. (2020) Ways to Consume Weed: Better than Smoking.
[13]  Romano, L. and Hazekamp, A. (2019) An Overview of Galenic Preparation Methods for Medicinal Cannabis. Current Bioactive Compounds, 15, 174-195.
[14]  NIDA (2019) Marijuana DrugFacts.
[15]  Franklin, R.M., Rosenthal, E. and Franklin, R.M. (2017) Method for Conducing Concentrated Cannabis Oil to Be Stable, Emulsifiable and Flavorless for Use in Hot Beverages and Resulting Powderized Cannabis Oil. US 20160243177.
[16]  Spindle, T.R., Cone, E.J., Schlienz, N.J., Mitchell, J.M., Bigelow, G.E., Flegel, R., et al. (2020) Urinary Excretion Profile of 11-Nor-9-Carboxy-Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THCCOOH) Following Smoked and Vaporized Cannabis Administration in Infrequent Cannabis Users. Journal of Analytical Toxicology, 44, 1-14.
[17]  Bruni, N., Della Pepa, C., Oliaro-Bosso, S., Pessione, E., Gastaldi, D. and Dosio, F. (2018) Cannabinoid Delivery Systems for Pain and Inflammation Treatment. Molecules, 23, Article No. 2478.
[18]  Holitzki, H., Dowsett, L.E., Spackman, E., Noseworthy, T., Clement, F. (2017) Health Effects of Exposure to Second- and Third-Hand Marijuana Smoke: A Systematic Review. CMAJ open, 5, E814-e822.
[19]  Graves, B.M., Johnson, T.J., Nishida, R.T., Dias, R.P., Savareear, B., Harynuk, J.J., et al. (2020) Comprehensive Characterization of Mainstream Marijuana and Tobacco Smoke. Scientific Reports, 10, Article No. 7160.
[20]  Ghasemiesfe, M., Barrow, B., Leonard, S., Keyhani, S. and Korenstein, D. (2019) Association between Marijuana Use and Risk of Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. JAMA Network Open, 2, Article ID: e1916318.
[21]  Callaghan, R.C., Allebeck, P., Akre, O., McGlynn, K.A. and Sidorchuk, A. (2017) Cannabis Use and Incidence of Testicular Cancer: A 42-Year Follow-Up of Swedish Men between 1970 and 2011. Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention Biomarkers, 26, 1644-1652.
[22]  IARC (2019) IARC Monographs on the Identification of Carcinogenic Hazards to Humans.
[23]  Swenberg, J.A., Moeller, B.C., Lu, K., Rager, J.E., Fry, R.C. and Starr, T.B. (2013) Formaldehyde Carcinogenicity Research: 30 Years and Counting for Mode of Action, Epidemiology, and Cancer Risk Assessment. Toxicologic Pathology, 41, 181-189.
[24]  Abdel-Shafy, H.I. and Mansour, M.S. (2016) A Review on Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Source, Environmental Impact, Effect on Human Health and Remediation. Egyptian Journal of Petroleum, 25, 107-123.
[25]  Nakajima, D. and Yagishita, M. (2018) Carcinogenicity/Mutagenicity. In: Hayakawa K., Ed., Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Springer, Singapore, 235-244.
[26]  Dong, H., Xian, Y., Li, H., Bai, W. and Zeng, X. (2020) Potential Carcinogenic Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines (HAAs) in Foodstuffs: Formation, Extraction, Analytical Methods, and Mitigation Strategies. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 19, 365-404.
[27]  Tan, S.L.W., Chadha, S., Liu, Y., Gabasova, E., Perera, D., Ahmed, K., et al. (2017) A Class of Environmental and Endogenous Toxins Induces BRCA2 Haploinsufficiency and Genome Instability. Cell, 169, 1105-1118.E15.
[28]  National Center for Biotechnology Information (2020) Isobutylene. PubChem Database.
[29]  Omare, M., Kibet, J., Cherutoi, J. and Kengara, F. (2020) A Review of the Current Trends on the Use of Cannabis Sativa for Recreational, Medicinal Applications, and Its Toxicological Health Impacts. Authorea, Preprints.
[30]  World Health Organization (2018) Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol. World Health Organization, Geneva.
[31]  Russo, C., Ferk, F., Misík, M., Ropek, N., Nersesyan, A., Mejri, D., et al. (2019) Low Doses of Widely Consumed Cannabinoids (Cannabidiol and Cannabidivarin) Cause DNA Damage and Chromosomal Aberrations in Human-Derived Cells. Archives of Toxicology, 93, 179-188.
[32]  Radhakrishnan, R., Wilkinson, S.T. and D’Souza, D.C. (2014) Gone to Pot—A Review of the Association between Cannabis and Psychosis. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 5, Article No. 54.
[33]  Groce, E. (2018) The Health Effects of Cannabis and Cannabinoids: The Current State of Evidence and Recommendations for Research. Journal of Medical Regulation, 104, 32.
[34]  Cohen, K, Weizman, A. and Weinstein, A. (2019) Positive and Negative Effects of Cannabis and Cannabinoids on Health. Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 105, 1139-1147.
[35]  Byers, C. (2017) Marijuana Smoking and the Risk of Developing COPD, Lung Cancer, and/or Chronic Respiratory Symptoms: A Systematic Review. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 180, 797-798.
[36]  Wang, X., Derakhshandeh, R., Liu, J., Narayan, S., Nabavizadeh, P., Le, S., et al. (2016) One Minute of Marijuana Secondhand Smoke Exposure Substantially Impairs Vascular Endothelial Function. Journal of the American Heart Association, 5, Article ID: e003858.
[37]  Hartman, R.L. and Huestis, M.A. (2013) Cannabis Effects on Driving Skills. Clinical Chemistry, 59, 478-492.
[38]  National Center for Biotechnology Information (2020) Marijuana.
[39]  Bloomfield, M.A., Ashok, A.H., Volkow, N.D. and Howes, O.D. (2016) The Effects of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol on the Dopamine System. Nature, 539, 369-377.
[40]  Beale, C., Broyd, S.J., Chye, Y., Suo, C., Schira, M., Galettis, P., et al. (2018) Prolonged Cannabidiol Treatment Effects on Hippocampal Subfield Volumes in Current Cannabis Users. Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research, 3, 94-107.
[41]  Wolff, V. and Jouanjus, E. (2017) Strokes Are Possible Complications of Cannabinoids Use. Epilepsy & Behavior, 70, 355-363.
[42]  Wolff, V., Lauer, V., Rouyer, O., Sellal, F., Meyer, N., Raul, J.S., et al. (2011) Cannabis Use, Ischemic Stroke, and Multifocal Intracranial Vasoconstriction: A Prospective Study in 48 Consecutive Young Patients. Stroke, 42, 1778-1780.
[43]  Sharma, P., Murthy, P. and Bharath, M.S. (2012) Chemistry, Metabolism, and Toxicology of Cannabis: Clinical Implications. Iranian Journal of Psychiatry, 7, 149-156.
[44]  Ahmed, C., Lee, A., Campbell, A., Garber, G., Palmisiano, N.D. and Worster, B. (2020) The Financial and Psychosocial Impact of Medicinal Cannabis. Thomas Jefferson University, Sydney.
[45]  de Carvalho Reis, R., Almeida, K.J., da Silva Lopes, L., de Melo Mendes, C.M. and Bor-Seng-Shu, E. (2020) Efficacy and Adverse Event Profile of Cannabidiol and Medicinal Cannabis for Treatment-Resistant Epilepsy: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Epilepsy & Behavior, 102, Article ID: 106635.
[46]  Perisetti, A., Rimu, A.H., Khan, S.A., Bansal, P. and Goyal, H. (2020) Role of Cannabis in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases. Annals of Gastroenterology, 33, 134-144.
[47]  Birdsall, S.M., Birdsall, T.C. and Tims, L.A. (2016) The Use of Medical Marijuana in Cancer. Current Oncology Reports, 18, Article No. 40.
[48]  Desai, A.N. and Patel, P. (2020) Stopping the Spread of COVID-19. JAMA, 323, 1516.
[49]  Abany, Z. (2020) Coronavirus: The Tide Is Coming for Medicinal Cannabis.
[50]  Hill, K.P. (2020) Cannabinoids and the Coronavirus. Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research, 5, 118-120.
[51]  Le, J. (2019) Overview of Pharmacokinetics. MSD MANUAL.
[52]  Millar, S.A., Stone, N.L., Yates, A.S. and O’Sullivan, S.E. (2018) A Systematic Review on the Pharmacokinetics of Cannabidiol in Humans. Frontiers in Pharmacology, 9, Article No. 1365.
[53]  Klumpers, L.E. and Thacker, D.L. (2019) A Brief Background on Cannabis: From Plant to Medical Indications. Journal of AOAC International, 102, 412-420.
[54]  Lucas, C.J., Galettis, P. and Schneider, J. (2018) The Pharmacokinetics and the Pharmacodynamics of Cannabinoids. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 84, 2477-2482.
[55]  Grotenhermen, F. (2003) Clinical Pharmacokinetics of Cannabinoids. Journal of Cannabis Therapeutics, 3, 3-51.
[56]  Kis, B., Ifrim, F.C., Buda, V., Avram, S., Pavel, I.Z., Antal, D., et al. (2019) Cannabidiol—From Plant to Human Body: A Promising Bioactive Molecule with Multi- Target Effects in Cancer. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 20, Article No. 5905.
[57]  Lucas, C.J., Galettis, P., Song, S., Solowij, N., Reuter, S.E., Schneider, J., et al. (2018) Cannabinoid Disposition after Human Intraperitoneal Use: An Insight into Intraperitoneal Pharmacokinetic Properties in Metastatic Cancer. Clinical therapeutics, 40, 1442-1447.
[58]  Heuberger, J.A., Guan, Z., Oyetayo, O.-O., Klumpers, L., Morrison, P.D., Beumer, T.L., et al. (2015) Population Pharmacokinetic Model of THC Integrates Oral, Intravenous, and Pulmonary Dosing and Characterizes Short- and Long-Term Pharmacokinetics. Clinical Pharmacokinetics, 54, 209-219.


comments powered by Disqus

Contact Us


微信:OALib Journal