All Title Author
Keywords Abstract

Publish in OALib Journal
ISSN: 2333-9721
APC: Only $99


From Nernst to Bernstein and Beyond

DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1107047, PP. 1-18

Subject Areas: Neuroscience, Biophysics

Keywords: Bernstein, Nernst, Hodgkin & Huxley Model, Biology, Biophysics

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib


Man has always been interested in animal electricity, which seems to be measured in every living cell. He has been fascinated by trying to elucidate the mechanisms by which this potential is created and maintained. Biology is the science that seeks to explain this mystery. Biology is based on basic sciences such as physics or chemistry. The latter, in turn, make systematic use of mathematics to measure, evaluate and predict certain phenomena and to develop “laws” and models that are as general as possible while respecting, as closely as possible, observations and facts. The Nernst equation was one of the pillars of electrochemistry. Biology also uses this same equation as one of the indispensable bases for the computation of membrane potential. Man has established a cellular model that highlights this equation in several forms. However, we are going to show by various means that this model is inadequate or even inapplicable.

Cite this paper

Delalande, B. , Tamagawa, H. and Matveev, V. (2020). From Nernst to Bernstein and Beyond. Open Access Library Journal, 7, e7047. doi:


[1]  Bockris, J.O. and Reddy, A.K.N. (1970) Modern Electrochemistry. Springer US, Boston.
[2]  Bernstein, J. and Tschermak, A. (1906) Untersuchungen zur Thermodynamik der bioelektrischen Ströme: Zweiter Teil Über die Natur der Kette des elektrischen Organs bei Torpedo. Pflüger, Archiv für die Gesammte Physiologie des Menschen und der Thiere, 112, 439-521.
[3]  Nernst, W. (2003) Begründung der Theoretischen Chemie: Neun Abhandlungen, 1889-1921, 1. Aufl. Verlag Harri Deutsch, Frankfurt am Main.
[4]  Maex, R. (2017) On the Nernst-Planck Equation. JIN, 16, 73-91.
[5]  Hille, B. (2001) Ion Channels of Excitable Membranes. 3rd Edition, Sinauer, Sunderland.
[6]  Boyle, P.J. and Conway, E.J. (1941) Potassium Accumulation in Muscle and Associated Changes. The Journal of Physiology, 100, 1-63.
[7]  Hodgkin, A.L. and Horowicz, P. (1959) The Influence of Potassium and Chloride Ions on the Membrane Potential of Single Muscle Fibres. The Journal of Physiology, 148, 127-160.
[8]  Koch, C. and Segev, I. (1998) Methods in Neuronal Modeling: From Ions to Networks. 2nd Edition, MIT Press, Cambridge.
[9]  Goldman, D.E. (1943) Potential, Impedance, and Rectification in Membranes. The Journal of General Physiology, 27, 37-60.
[10]  Gouaux, E. and Mackinnon, R. (2005) Principles of Selective Ion Transport in Channels and Pumps. Science (New York, N.Y.), 310, 1461-1465.
[11]  Özbek, S., Balasubramanian, P.G. and Holstein, T.W. (2009) Cnidocyst Structure and the Biomechanics of Discharge. Toxicon, 54, 1038-1045.
[12]  Lubbock, R., Gupta, B.L. and Hall, T.A. (1981) Novel Role of Calcium in Exocytosis: Mechanism of Nematocyst Discharge as Shown by X-Ray Microanalysis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 78, 3624-3628.
[13]  Lucey, B.P., Nelson-Rees, W.A. and Hutchins, G.M. (2009) Henrietta Lacks, HeLa Cells, and Cell Culture Contamination. Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, 133, 1463-1467.
[14]  Hofmeister, F. (1888) Zur Lehre von der Wirkung der Salze: Zweite Mittheilung. Archiv für experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie, 24, 247-260.
[15]  Bye, J.W. and Falconer, R.J. (2015) A Study of the Relationship between Water and Anions of the Hofmeister Series Using Pressure Perturbation Calorimetry. Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, 17, 14130-14137.
[16]  Ling, G.N. (1992) A Revolution in the Physiology of the Living Cell. Original Edition, Krieger Pub. Co., Malabar.
[17]  Tamagawa, H. and Morita, S. (2014) Membrane Potential Generated by Ion Adsorption. Membranes, 4, 257-274.
[18]  Tasaki, I. and Iwasa, K. (1980) Swelling of Nerve Fibers during Action Potentials. Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, 85, 211-215.
[19]  Heimburg, T. (2007) Thermal Biophysics of Membranes. Wiley-VCH Verlag, Wein- heim.
[20]  Delalande, B., Tamagawa, H. and Matveev, V. (2019) Another Train Paradox/May the Myelin Be with You!


comments powered by Disqus

Contact Us


WhatsApp +8615387084133

WeChat 1538708413