Good quality urine samples play a crucial role in establishing an early and accurate diagnosis of urinary tract infection in infants. Invasive methods are more reliable but cause pain and discomfort in infants as well as anxiety in clinicians and parents. The current available non-invasive methods are less efficient and produce low quality urine samples being less apprehensive in infants and parents. To date, no studies have been conducted in South East Asia, including Malaysia, to identify the most feasible non-invasive urine sampling method. This literature review aimed to compare various non-invasive urine sample collection methods (bladder stimulation techniques, standard clean-catch urine, urine collection pads and urine bags) which could be more feasible for a district hospital setting in Malaysia. In total, 17 studies were included and reviewed. This review concluded that bladder stimulation techniques are potentially good and feasible alternatives to the current common practices in Malaysia (standard clean-catch urine and catherization) due to its high success rate, fast collection and low contamination rate. There is a higher likelihood to implement these techniques in a tertiary setting if further research on bladder stimulation techniques is found feasible in a less resourceful district hospital setting.
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