The use of water resources is ineffective although Turkey has insufficient freshwater resources. Dry farming is practiced in a large part of agricultural land. This land due to insufficient precipitation throughout the country is left to fallow once in two years. Agricultural drought is becoming a severe challenge for agriculture and food security, and it may also impact the wealth of farmers by agriculture income. So, it causes widespread concern among the rural population. There is a close relationship between food security and agricultural irrigation. Ensuring food security against population increase is the main responsibility of the government via irrigation policies. Basically, these policies are divided into two as expanding irrigated areas and improving efficiency in irrigation by new irrigation investments. These are water transfer from reservoirs to dry agricultural areas and improve pressurized irrigation investment. Significant efforts have been made by governments since the 1960s to reduce the risk of drought in agricultural production and to increase agricultural yields. Increasing agricultural income through irrigation and satisfying small family businesses are among the political goals of governments. However, according to the findings of this study, as the development priorities of governments changed after 2003, the share of irrigation investments in the total budget gradually decreased. Although great targets have been set for 2023, it seems difficult to reach these targets since sufficient resources are not allocated to irrigation investments. In this study, the current state of irrigation and its effects on food security were analyzed with a literature review and Ishikawa diagram, and the policies implemented by the government and relevant government agencies were evaluated. The article mainly deals with the current state of irrigation and food security targets.
Cite this paper
Yücer, A. A. and Ayhan, F. N. (2020). An Assessment of the Water, Irrigation, and Food Security by a Fishbone Analysis in Turkey. Open Access Library Journal, 7, e6929. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1106929.
Rosegrant, M.W., Cline, S.A. and Valmonte-Santos, R.A. (2010) Global Water and Food Security: Megatrends and Emerging Issues. In: Ringler, C., Biswas, A. and Cline, S., Eds., Global Change: Impacts on Water and Food Security, Water Resources Development and Management, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 14-47.
Zhang, X., Guo, Q., Shen, X., Yu, S. and Qiu, G. (2015) Water Quality, Agriculture and Food Safety in China: Current Situation, Trends, Interdependencies, and Management. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 14, 2365-2379.
Li, J., Ma, W., Renwick, A. and Zheng, H. (2020) The Impact of Access to Irrigation on Rural Incomes and Diversification: Evidence from China. China Agricultural Economic Review, 12, 705-725. https://doi.org/10.1108/CAER-09-2019-0172
Huang, Q., Rozelle, S., Lohmar, B., Huang, J. and Wang, J. (2006) Irrigation, Agricultural Performance, and Poverty Reduction in China. Food Policy, 31, 30-52.
Kesuma, S.I., Maryunianta, Y. and Muda, I. (2018) Evaluation of Irrigation System to Support the Implementation of Food Security Policy. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology, 9, 600-614
Wang, J., Zhu, Y., Sun, T. and Huang, Q. (2020) Forty Years of Irrigation Development and Reform in China. Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, 64.
Maitra, S. and Pine, S. (2020) Smart Irrigation for Food Security and Agricultural Sustainability. Indian Journal of Natural Sciences, 10, 20435-20439.
Jiménez, A. and Pérez-Foguet, A. (2010) Building the Role of Local Government Authorities towards the Achievement of the Human Right to Water in Rural Tanzania. Natural Resources Forum, 34, 93-105.
Ilie, G. and Ciocoiu, C.N. (2010) Application of Fishbone Diagram to Determine the Risk of an Event with Multiple Causes. Management Research And Practice, 2, 1-20. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/46567642
Kamber, R., Baştug, R., Büyüktaş, D., Ünlü, M. and Kapur, M. (2010) Impact on Agricultural Irrigation and Water Sources of Global Climate Change. Agriculture Engineering VII. Technic Congress, Ankara, 11-15 January 2010.
Kibaroglu, A. and Başkan, A. (2011) Turkey’s Water Policy Framework. In: Kibaroglu, A., Scheuman, W. and Kramer, A., Eds., Turkey’s Water Policy National Frameworks and International Cooperation, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, 3-25.
Tigrek, S. and Kibaroglu, A. (2011). Strategic Role of Water Resources for Turkey. In: Kibaroglu A., Scheuman, W. and Kramer, A., Eds., Turkey’s Water Policy National Frameworks and International Cooperation, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, 27-42. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-19636-2_2
Sönmez, B. (2008) Guide of Aridity Control. Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock, Soil, Fertilizer and Water Sources Center Research Institute, Technical Publication No. 33, Ankara. (In Turkish)
Yücer, A., Kan, M., Demirtaş, M. and Kalanlar, Ş. (2016) The Importance of Creating New Inheritance Policies and Laws That Reduce Agricultural Land Fragmentation and Its negative Impacts in Turkey. Land Use Policy, 56, 1-7.
Aydogdu, M. and Karli, B. (2016) Analysis of Factor Affecting Willingness to Pay for Agricultural Irrigation under Water Shortages-GAP Harran Plain Samplings. XII Tarim Ekonomisi Kongresi Bildirileri, Isparta. (In Turkish)