All Title Author
Keywords Abstract

Publish in OALib Journal
ISSN: 2333-9721
APC: Only $99


The Influence of Seasonal Variation of Thermal Variables on Comfort Temperature in Schools in a Warm and Humid Climate

DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1106753, PP. 1-13

Subject Areas: Architecture

Keywords: Architects, Facility Managers, Schoolchildren, Seasonal Variation, Thermal Comfort, Thermal Variables

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib


This study aims to examine the influence of seasonal variations of thermal variables on comfort temperature in schools in a warm and humid climate. Schoolchildren in Nigeria are engaged in in-class lessons in the two seasons experienced in the country. There have been concerns about whether seasonal variation in thermal variables can affect the thermal comfort of building occupants. To address this issue, data were collected from 180 healthy primary schoolchildren aged 7 - 12 years old. The research methodology consisted of measuring environmental variables, while questionnaires were applied to the children during the rainy season and dry season. The result shows some significant seasonal differences in the measured thermal variables and comfort temperature. The mean indoor temperature observed during the dry season was 29.1?C while during the rainy season the mean value was 28.1?C. The subjects found the indoor environment acceptable during the rainy season, while during the dry season it was found unacceptable. Furthermore, differences in neutral temperature and comfort range between seasons were observed. Architects and facility managers need to have information about thermal conditions in schools according to season. This is because primary schoolchildren are vulnerable, and exposing them to variations in indoor temperature may impact on their health and academic performance.

Cite this paper

Munonye, C. (2020). The Influence of Seasonal Variation of Thermal Variables on Comfort Temperature in Schools in a Warm and Humid Climate. Open Access Library Journal, 7, e6753. doi:


[1]  Ashrae, A. (2017) Standard 55-2017. Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy.
[2]  Munonye, C. and Ji, Y.C. (2017) Rating the Components of Indoor Environmental Quality in Students Classrooms in Warm Humid Climate of Uli, Nigeria. 13th International Postgraduate Research Conference, University of Salford, 14-15 September 2017, 902.
[3]  Anderson, G.B., Dominici, F., Wang, Y., McCormack, M.C., Bell, M.L. and Peng, R.D. (2013) Heat-Related Emergency Hospitalizations for Respiratory Diseases in the Medicare Population. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 187, 1098-1103.
[4]  Hoshiko, S., English, P., Smith, D. and Trent, R. (2010) A Simple Method for Estimating Excess Mortality Due to Heat Waves, as Applied to the 2006 California Heat Wave. International Journal of Public Health, 55, 133-137.
[5]  Jiang, J., Wang, D.J., Liu, Y.F., Xu, Y.C. and Liu, J.P. (2018) A Study on Pupils’ Learning Performance and Thermal Comfort of Primary Schools in China. Building and Environment, 134, 102-113.
[6]  Nogueira, B.L. (2018) Evaluation of Thermal Comfort in Commercial Buildings Operating under Mixed Environmental Conditioning Systems in Temperate and Humid Climate [In Portuguese—Percepção e reação de trabalhadores ao ambiente térmico em escritórios condicionados artificialmente no ocntexto do clima quente e úmido]. Master’s Thesis, Federal University of Paraíba, Joao Pessoa.
[7]  Souza, J., Nogueira, B., Limsa, A. and Leder, S. (2020) Thermal Comfort Analysis in Both Naturally Ventilated and Air-Conditioned Classrooms in a Warm and Humid Climate. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, Temuco, Chile, 16-18 October 2019.
[8]  López-Pérez, L.A., Flores-Prieto, J.J. and Ríos-Rojas, C. (2019) Adaptive Thermal Comfort Model for Educational Buildings in a Hot-Humid Climate. Building and Environment, 150, 181-194.
[9]  Zomorodian, Z.S., Tahsildoost, M. and Hafezi, M. (2016) Thermal Comfort in Educational Buildings: A Review Article. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 59, 895-906.
[10]  De Dear, R. and Brager, G.S. (1998) Developing an Adaptive Model of Thermal Comfort and Preference. Center for the Built Environment, Berkeley.
[11]  Trebilcock, M., Soto-Munoz, J., Yanez, M. and Figueroa-San Martin, R. (2017) The Right to Comfort: A Field Study on Adaptive Thermal Comfort in Free-Running Primary Schools in Chile. Building and Environment, 114, 455-469.
[12]  Jiang, J., Wang, D., Liu, Y., Xu, Y. and Liu, J. (2018) A Study on Pupils’ Learning Performance and Thermal Comfort of Primary Schools in China. Building and Environment, 134, 102-113.
[13]  Adaji, M., Watkins, R. and Adler, G. (2017) Indoor Thermal Comfort of Residential Buildings in the Hot-Humid Climate of Nigeria during the Dry Season. PLEA, Edinburgh, 3-5 July 2017.
[14]  Ogbonna, A.C. and Harris, D.J. (2008) Thermal Comfort in Sub-Saharan Africa: Field Study Report in Jos-Nigeria. Applied Energy, 85, 1-11.
[15]  Akingbade, F.O.A. (2004) Responses on Indoor Thermal Environment in Selected Dwellings during the Hot Season in Ibadan, Nigeria. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 10, 627-633.
[16]  Adunola, A.O. and Ajibola, K. (2016) Factors Significant to Thermal Comfort within Residential Neighborhoods of Ibadan Metropolis and Preferences in Adult Residents’ Use of Spaces. SAGE Open, 6, 1-19.
[17]  Elbayoumi, M., Ramli, N.Z., Yusof, N.F.F. and Al Madhoun, W. (2015) Seasonal Variation in School’s Indoor Air Environments and Health Symptoms among Students in an Eastern Mediterranean Climate. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment, 21, 184-204.
[18]  Liu, H., Wu, Y.X., Li, B.Z., Cheng, Y. and Yao, R.M. (2017) Seasonal Variation of Thermal Sensations in Residential Buildings in the Hot Summer and Cold Winter Zone in China. Energy and Buildings, 140, 9-18.
[19]  Zhang, Y.F., Wang, J.Y., Chen, H.M., Zhang, J. and Meng, Q.L. (2010) Thermal Comfort in Naturally Ventilated Buildings in Hot-Humid Area of China. Building and Environment, 45, 2562-2570.
[20]  Appah-Dankyi, J. and Koranteng, C. (2012) An Assessment of Thermal Comfort in a Warm and Humid School Building at Accra, Ghana. Advances in Applied Science Research.
[21]  Nicol, F., Humphreys, M. and Roaf, S. (2012) Adaptive Thermal Comfort: Principles and Practice. Routledge, Abingdon.
[22]  Haddad, S. (2016) Thermal Comfort in Naturally Ventilated Schools. A Field Study of Thermal Comfort in Iranian Primary School Classrooms. The University of New South Wales, Sydney.
[23]  Humphreys, M.A. and Hancock, M. (2007) Do People Like to Feel “Neutral”?: Exploring the Variation of the Desired Thermal Sensation on the ASHRAE Scale. Energy and Buildings, 39, 867-874.


comments powered by Disqus

Contact Us


微信:OALib Journal