Chemical water treatment problems such as disinfection by-products (DBPs) generation have urged on the search for better water treatment technologies such as electrochemical water technologies that have been applied successfully in different water/wastewater pollutants removal. However, their large expansion is hindered by similar DBPs troubles. Throughout the electrochemical process, such carcinogenic substances can be produced depending on the electrode material and applied voltage. This work aims to discuss recent advances recorded in dealing with DBPs formation in electrochemical devices. Numerous sophisticated techniques are lately suggested such as an interesting method employing carbon felt cathodes in which DBPs are less formed, and another judicious method utilizing boron-doped diamond anodes in which perchlorate production is decreased. Many action plans for removing halides from water to reduce DBPs are also listed. Combining electrochemical processes and their merging with nanotechnologies for better efficiency in dealing with pathogens and DBPs removal are suggested. Secure multi-barrier techniques, like distillation, granular activated carbon, and membrane processes have proven their excellent effectiveness in eliminating pathogens and pollutants. Employing those invincible technologies, thanks to their relatively low costs and ease of applications, is an encouraging domain of research with a perspective to bypass the DBPs formation during the efficient electrochemical processes.
Cite this paper
Ghernaout, D. and Elboughdiri, N. (2020). Disinfection By-Products (DBPs) Control Strategies in Electrodisinfection. Open Access Library Journal, 7, e6396. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1106396.
Chen, X., Wang, Y., Li, W., Ding, Z., Lu, Y., Ding, J., Zhang, J., Qi, W., Wei, W. and Zhao, X. (2020) Anti-Bacterial Performance, Disinfection By-Products Control and Optimization Strategy in Distributed Potable Water Supply Using Electrolysis. Journal of Cleaner Production, 265, Article ID: 121810.
Chaffin, J.D., Fox, E.L., Nauman, C.A. and Slodysko, K.N. (2019) The Ability of Household Pitcher-Style Water Purifiers to Remove Microcystins Depends on Filtration Rate and Activated Carbon Source. Water Science & Technology Water Supply, 19, 336-345. https://doi.org/10.2166/ws.2018.081
Bautista-de Los Santos, Q.M., Chavarria, K.A. and Nelson, K.L. (2019) Understanding the Impacts of Intermittent Supply on the Drinking Water Microbiome. Current Opinion in Biotechnology, 57, 167-174.
Ghernaout, D., Elboughdiri, N., Alghamdi, A. and Ghernaout, B. (2020) Trends in Decreasing Disinfection By-Products Formation during Electrochemical Technologies. Open Access Library Journal, 7, e6337. https://doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1106337
Mohamed, Z.A., Deyab, M.A., Abou-Dobara, M.I. and El-Raghi, W.M. (2016) Occurrence of Toxic Cyanobacteria and Microcystin Toxin in Domestic Water Storage Reservoirs. Journal of Water Supply: Research and Technology—AQUA, 65, 431-440.
Pinto, A.J., Xi, C.W. and Raskin, L. (2012) Bacterial Community Structure in the Drinking Water Microbiome Is Governed by Filtration Processes. Environmental Science & Technology, 46, 8851-8859. https://doi.org/10.1021/es302042t
Ma, S.C., Gan, Y.Q., Chen, B.Y., Tang, Z. and Krasner, S. (2017) Understanding and Exploring the Potentials of Household Water Treatment Methods for Volatile Disinfection By-Products Control: Kinetics, Mechanisms, and Influencing Factors. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 321, 509-516.
Ghernaout, D., Elboughdiri, N., Ghareba, S. and Salih, A. (2020) Disinfecting Water with the Carbon Fiber-Based Flow-Through Electrode System (FES): Towards Axial Dispersion and Velocity Profile. Open Access Library Journal, 7, e6238.
Chard, A.N., Garn, J.V., Chang, H.H., Clasen, T. and Freeman, M.C. (2019) Impact of a School-Based Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Intervention on School Absence, Diarrhea, Respiratory Infection, and Soil-Transmitted Helminths: Results from the Wash Helps Cluster-Randomized Trial. Journal of Global Health, 9, Article ID: 020402.
Zlatanovic, L., van der Hoek, J.P. and Vreeburg, J.H.G. (2017) An Experimental Study on the Influence of Water Stagnation and Temperature Change on Water Quality in a Full-Scale Domestic Drinking Water System. Water Research, 123, 761-772.
Ghernaout, D., Elboughdiri, N., Ghareba, S. and Salih, A. (2020) Electrochemical Advanced Oxidation Processes (EAOPs) for Disinfecting Water—Fresh Perspectives. Open Access Library Journal, 7, e6257. https://doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1106257
Ghernaout, D. and Elboughdiri, N. (2020) Controlling Disinfection By-Products Formation in Rainwater: Technologies and Trends. Open Access Library Journal, 7, e6162. https://doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1106162
Chang, N.-B., Pongsanone, N.P. and Ernest, A. (2013) A Rule-Based Decision Support System for Sensor Deployment in Small Drinking Water Networks. Journal of Cleaner Production, 60, 152-162. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2012.10.036
Scheili, A., Rodriguez, M.J. and Sadiq, R. (2016) Impact of Human Operational Factors on Drinking Water Quality in Small Systems: An Exploratory Analysis. Journal of Cleaner Production, 133, 681-690. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2016.05.179
Ghernaout, D. and Elboughdiri, N. (2020) UV-C/H2O2 and Sunlight/H2O2 in the Core of the Best Available Technologies for Dealing with Present Dares in Domestic Wastewater Reuse. Open Access Library Journal, 7, e6161.
Khosravi, A., Rad, Z.H., Amirmahani, N., Nasiri, A. and Malakootian, M. (2019) The Application of Electrolysis Method to Disinfect Water Contaminated by Salmonella and Shigella. Journal of Water Chemistry and Technology, 41, 182-187.
Zhang, Y., Zuo, S., Zhang, Y., Li, M., Cai, J. and Zhou, M. (2018) Disinfection of Simulated Ballast Water by a Flow-Through Electro-Peroxone Process. Chemical Engineering Journal, 348, 485-493. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2018.04.123
Ghernaout, D., Badis, A., Ghernaout, B. and Kellil, A. (2008) Application of Electrocoagulation in Escherichia coli Culture and Two Surface Waters. Desalination, 219, 118-125. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.desal.2007.05.010
Al-Mamun, A., Ahmad, W., Baawain, M.S., Khadem, M. and Dhar, B.R. (2018) A Review of Microbial Desalination Cell Technology: Configurations, Optimization and Applications. Journal of Cleaner Production, 183, 458-480.
Martinez-Huitle, C.A. and Brillas, E. (2008) Electrochemical Alternatives for Drinking Water Disinfection. Angewandte Chemie International Edition, 47, 1998-2005.
Belhout, D., Ghernaout, D., Djezzar-Douakh, S. and Kellil, A. (2010) Electrocoagulation of a Raw Water of Ghrib Dam (Algeria) in Batch Using Iron Electrodes. Desalination and Water Treatment, 16, 1-9. https://doi.org/10.5004/dwt.2010.1081
Ghernaout, D., Ghernaout, B. and Kellil, A. (2009) Natural Organic Matter Removal and Enhanced Coagulation as a Link between Coagulation and Electrocoagulation. Desalination and Water Treatment, 2, 203-222.
Ghernaout, D., Naceur, M.W. and Aouabed, A. (2011) On the Dependence of Chlorine By-Products Generated Species Formation of the Electrode Material and Applied Charge during Electrochemical Water Treatment. Desalination, 270, 9-22.
Yoon, Y.J., Kwon, M.H., Jung, Y.M., Moon, J.H. and Kang, J.W. (2013) Development of Point-of-Use Water Disinfection Technology Using Ceramic Water Filter and Electrochemical Hybrid System. Water Science & Technology Water Supply, 13, 1174-1180. https://doi.org/10.2166/ws.2013.124
Ghernaout, D., Benblidia, C. and Khemici, F. (2015) Microalgae Removal from Ghrib Dam (Ain Defla, Algeria) Water by Electroflotation Using Stainless Steel Electrodes. Desalination and Water Treatment, 54, 3328-3337.
Verma, S.K., Singhal, P. and Chauhan, D.S. (2019) A Synergistic Evaluation on Application of Solar-Thermal Energy in Water Purification: Current Scenario and Future Prospects. Energy Conversion and Management, 180, 372-390.
Ghernaout, D., Alghamdi, A., Touahmia, M., Aichouni, M. and Ait Messaoudene, N. (2018) Nanotechnology Phenomena in the Light of the Solar Energy. Journal of Energy, Environmental & Chemical Engineering, 3, 1-8.
Yao, Y., Kubota, Y., Murakami, T., Ochiai, T., Ishiguro, H., Nakata, K. and Fujishima, A. (2011) Electrochemical Inactivation Kinetics of Boron-Doped Diamond Electrode on Waterborne Pathogens. Journal of Water and Health, 9, 534-543.
Yoon, Y., Cho, E., Jung, Y., Kwon, M., Yoon, J. and Kang, J.-W. (2015) Evaluation of the Formation of Oxidants and By-Products Using Pt/Ti, RuO2/Ti, and IrO2/Ti Electrodes in the Electrochemical Process. Environmental Technology, 36, 317-326.
Ghernaout, D., Alghamdi, A., Aichouni, M. and Touahmia, M. (2018) The Lethal Water Tri-Therapy: Chlorine, Alum, and Polyelectrolyte. World Journal of Applied Chemistry, 3, 65-71. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.wjac.20180302.14
Patil, R.S., Juvekar, V.A. and Naik, V.M. (2011) Oxidation of Chloride Ion on Platinum Electrode: Dynamics of Electrode Passivation and Its Effect on Oxidation Kinetics. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 50, 12946-12959.
Ghernaout, D., Aichouni, M. and Touahmia, M. (2019) Mechanistic Insight into Disinfection by Electrocoagulation: A Review. Desalination and Water Treatment, 141, 68-81. https://doi.org/10.5004/dwt.2019.23457
Wang, S., Bao, W., Zhang, F., Qi, F., Nan, S., He, J., Zhu, S. and Ye, Z. (2018) Disinfection Kinetics of Slightly Acidic Electrolyzed Water to Freshwater under the Condition of Dynamic Hybrid. Journal of Cleaner Production, 174, 1136-1146.
Ghernaout, D. and Elboughdiri, N. (2020) Strategies for Reducing Disinfection By-Products Formation during Electrocoagulation. Open Access Library Journal, 7, e6076. https://doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1106076
Ghernaout, D. (2018) Disinfection and DBPs Removal in Drinking Water Treatment: A Perspective for a Green Technology. International Journal of Advances in Applied Sciences, 5, 108-117. https://doi.org/10.21833/ijaas.2018.02.018
Boucherit, A., Moulay, S., Ghernaout, D., Al-Ghonamy, A.I., Ghernaout, B., Naceur, M.W., Ait Messaoudene, N., Aichouni, M., Mahjoubi, A.A. and Elboughdiri, N.A. (2015) New Trends in Disinfection By-Products Formation upon Water Treatment. Journal of Research & Developments in Chemistry, 2015, Article ID: 628833.
Ghernaout, D. (2017) Environmental Principles in the Holy Koran and the Sayings of the Prophet Muhammad. American Journal of Environmental Protection, 6, 75-79.
Cotillas, S., Llanos, J., Rodrigo, M.A. and Ca？izares, P. (2015) Use of Carbon Felt Cathodes for the Electrochemical Reclamation of Urban Treated Wastewaters. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 162, 252-259.
Bergmann, M.E.H., Rollin, J. and Iourtchouk, T. (2009) The Occurrence of Perchlorate during Drinking Water Electrolysis Using BDD Anodes. Electrochimica Acta, 54, 2102-2107. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.electacta.2008.09.040
Bergmann, H. and Koparal, S. (2005) The Formation of Chlorine Dioxide in the Electrochemical Treatment of Drinking Water for Disinfection. Electrochimica Acta, 50, 5218-5228. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.electacta.2005.01.061
Yao, W., Fu, J., Yang, H., Yu, G. and Wang, Y. (2019) The Beneficial Effect of Cathodic Hydrogen Peroxide Generation on Mitigating Chlorinated By-Product Formation during Water Treatment by an Electro-Peroxone Process. Water Research, 157, 209-217. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2019.03.049
Cotillas, S., Llanos, J., Castro-Ríos, K., Taborda-Ocampo, G., Rodrigo, M.A. and Ca？izares, P. (2016) Synergistic Integration of Sonochemical and Electrochemical Disinfection with DSA Anodes. Chemosphere, 163, 562-568.
Watson, K., Farré, M.J. and Knight, N. (2012) Strategies for the Removal of Halides from Drinking Water Sources, and Their Applicability in Disinfection By-Product Minimisation: A Critical Review. Journal of Environmental Management, 110, 276-298.
Ghernaout, D., El-Wakil, A., Alghamdi, A., Elboughdiri, N. and Mahjoubi, A. (2018) Membrane Post-Synthesis Modifications and How It Came about. International Journal of Advances in Applied Sciences, 5, 60-64.
Ghernaout, D., Alshammari, Y., Alghamdi, A., Aichouni, M., Touahmia, M. and Ait Messaoudene, N. (2018) Water Reuse: Extenuating Membrane Fouling in Membrane Processes. International Journal of Environmental Chemistry, 2, 1-12.
Ghernaout, D., Elboughdiri, N., Ghareba, S. and Salih, A. (2020) Coagulation Process for Removing Algae and Algal Organic Matter—An Overview. Open Access Library Journal, 7, e6272. https://doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1106272
Ghernaout, B., Ghernaout, D. and Saiba, A. (2010) Algae and Cyanotoxins Removal by Coagulation/Flocculation: A Review. Desalination and Water Treatment, 20, 133-143.
Ghernaout, D., Naceur, M.W. and Ghernaout, B. (2011) A Review of Electrocoagulation as a Promising Coagulation Process for Improved Organic and Inorganic Matters Removal by Electrophoresis and Electroflotation. Desalination and Water Treatment, 28, 287-320. https://doi.org/10.5004/dwt.2011.1493
Ghernaout, D. (2014) The Hydrophilic/Hydrophobic Ratio vs. Dissolved Organics Removal by Coagulation: A Review. Journal of King Saud University—Science, 26, 169-180. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jksus.2013.09.005
Ghernaout, D., Badis, A., Braikia, G., Mataam, N., Fekhar, M., Ghernaout, B. and Boucherit, A. (2017) Enhanced Coagulation for Algae Removal in a Typical Algeria Water Treatment Plant. Environmental Engineering and Management Journal, 16, 2303-2315. https://doi.org/10.30638/eemj.2017.238
Ghernaout, D. (2018) Magnetic Field Generation in the Water Treatment Perspectives: An Overview. International Journal of Advances in Applied Sciences, 5, 193-203.
Ghernaout, D., Aichouni, M. and Alghamdi, A. (2018) Applying Big Data (BD) in Water Treatment Industry: A New Era of Advance. International Journal of Advances in Applied Sciences, 5, 89-97. https://doi.org/10.21833/ijaas.2018.03.013
Alshammari, Y., Ghernaout, D., Aichouni, M. and Touahmia, M. (2018) Improving Operational Procedures in Riyadh’s (Saudi Arabia) Water Treatment Plants Using Quality Tools. Applied Engineering, 2, 60-71.
Ghernaout, D. and Ghernaout, B. (2012) On the Concept of the Future Drinking Water Treatment Plant: Algae Harvesting from the Algal Biomass for Biodiesel Production—A Review. Desalination and Water Treatment, 49, 1-18.
Ghernaout, D., Moulay, S., Ait Messaoudene, N., Aichouni, M., Naceur, M.W. and Boucherit, A. (2014) Coagulation and Chlorination of NOM and Algae in Water Treatment: A Review. International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis, 2, 23-34. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ijema.s.2014020601.14
Cotillas, S., Llanos, J., Moraleda, I., Ca？izares, P. and Rodrigo, M.A. (2020) Scaling-Up an Integrated Electrodisinfection-Electrocoagulation Process for Wastewater Reclamation. Chemical Engineering Journal, 380, Article ID: 122415.
Ghernaout, D. and Elboughdiri, N. (2020) Removing Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria (ARB) Carrying Genes (ARGs): Challenges and Future Trends. Open Access Library Journal, 7, e6003. https://doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1106003