| ||Keller, E.J. (2014) Identity, Citizenship, and Political Conflict in Africa. Indiana University Press, Bloomington.|
| ||Shilaho, W.K. (2018) Political Power and Tribalism in Kenya. Springer International Publishing, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-65295-5|
| ||Ajulu, R. (2002) Politicised Ethnicity, Competitive Politics and Conflict in Kenya: A Historical Perspective. African Studies, 61, 251-268.
| ||Chege, M. (1981) A Tale of Two Slums: Electoral Politics in Mathare and Dagoretti. Review of African Political Economy, 8, 74-88.
| ||Frueh, J. (2003) Political Identity and Social Change: The Remaking of the South African Social Order. State University of New York Press, Albany.|
| ||Mapungubwe Institute for Strategic Reflection (MISTRA) (2014) Nation Formation and Social Cohesion: An Enquiry into the Hopes and Aspirations of South Africans. Real African Publishers, Johannesburg.|
| ||Rohanlall, L. (2014) Party Ideology in South Africa. Master’s by Dissertation Thesis, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg.|
| ||Parliament of the Republic of South Africa (2017) All Members.
| ||Gauja, A. (2016) Political Parties and Elections: Legislating for Representative Democracy. Routledge, Abingdon. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315601205|
| ||Christmann, A. (2009) The Qur’an, Morality and Critical Reason: The Essential Muhammad Shahrur. Brill, Leiden. https://doi.org/10.1163/ej.9789004171039.i-588|
| ||Fenton, S. (1999) Ethnicity: Racism, Class and Culture. Macmillan Press, London.
| ||Ritter, L.A. and Hoffman, N. (2010) Multicultural Health. Jones & Bartlett Publishers, Boston.|
| ||Appiah, K.A. (1998) Race, Culture, Identity: Misunderstood Connections. In: Appiah, K.A. and Gutmann, A., Eds., Color Conscious: The Political Morality of Race, Princeton University Press, Princeton, 30-105.
| ||Zaibert, L. and Milán-Zaibert, E. (2000) Universalism, Particularism and Group Rights: The Case of Hispanics. In: Gracia, J.J.E. and De Greiff, P., Eds., Hispanics/Latinos in the United States: Ethnicity, Race, and Rights, Routledge, New York, 167-179.|
| ||Gracia, J.J.E. (2007) Race or Ethnicity? An Introduction. In: Gracia, J.J.E., Ed., Race or Ethnicity: On Black and Latino Identity, Cornell University Press, London, 1-18.
| ||Constitution of Kenya (2010) National Council for Law Reporting, Nairobi.|
| ||Political Parties Act No. 11 2011, Kenya.|
| ||Cowen, M. and Kanyinga, K. (2002) The 1997 Elections in Kenya: The Politics of Communality and Locality. In: Cowen, M. and Laakso, L., Eds., Multi-Party Elections in Africa, James Currey Ltd., Oxford, 128-171.|
| ||Rawlence, B., Albin-Lackey, C. and Neistat, A. (2008) Ballots to Bullets: Organized Political Violence and Kenya’s Crisis of Governance. Human Rights Watch.
| ||Christopher, A.J. (2002) “To Define the Indefinable”: Population Classification and the Census in South Africa. Area, 34, 401-408.
| ||Population Registration Act No. 30 of 1950, South Africa.|
| ||Prohibition of Political Interference Act No. 51 of 1968, South Africa.|
| ||Electoral Institute for Sustainable Democracy in Africa 2006, South Africa: Party Registration. https://eisa.org.za/wep/souparties1.htm|
| ||Electoral Commission Act 51 of 1996, South Africa.|
| ||Constitution of the Republic of South Africa Act 1997, South Africa.|
| ||Promotion of Equality and Prevention of Unfair Discrimination Act 4 of 2000, South Africa.|
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| ||Respondent Ten 2018, Interview with the Author on 5 February, Nairobi.|
| ||Mueller, S.D. (2008) The Political Economy of Kenya’s Crisis. Journal of Eastern African Studies, 2, 185-210. https://doi.org/10.1080/17531050802058302|
| ||Respondent Nine 2018, Interview with the Author on 1 February, Nairobi.|
| ||Ahere, J.R. (2018) When a Compatriot Becomes a Foe: Political Parties and Violent Elections in Kenya and South Africa. Journal of African Elections, 17, 25-48.
| ||Respondent Eleven 2018, Interview with the Author on 6 February, Nairobi.|
| ||Respondent Twelve 2018, Interview with the Author on 17 February, Nairobi.|
| ||Respondent Three 2017, Interview with Author on 21 December, Durban.|
| ||Southern, N. (2011) Political Opposition and the Challenges of a Dominant Party System: The Democratic Alliance in South Africa. Journal of Contemporary African Studies, 29, 281-298. https://doi.org/10.1080/02589001.2011.581478|
| ||Respondent Seven 2017, Interview with Author on 16 November, Pietermaritzburg.|
| ||Frankental, S. and Sichone, O.B. (2005) South Africa’s Diverse Peoples: A Reference Sourcebook. ABC-CLIO, Santa Barbara.|
| ||Piombo, J. (2009) Institutions, Ethnicity, and Political Mobilization in South Africa. Palgrave Macmillan, New York. https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230623828|
| ||Long, J.D. and Gibson, C.C. (2015) Evaluating the Roles of Ethnicity and Performance in African Elections. Political Research Quarterly, 68, 1-13.
| ||Nyambura, Z. (2017) In Kenya, Politics Split on Ethnic Divide. DW Akademie.
| ||Bratton, M. and Kimenyi, M.S. (2008) Voting in Kenya: Putting Ethnicity in Perspective. Journal of Eastern African Studies, 2, 272-289.
| ||Independent Electoral and Boundaries Commission 2017, 2017 Poll Results.
| ||Ferree, K.E. (2010) Framing the Race in South Africa: The Political Origins of Racial Census Elections. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
| ||Anyangwe, C. (2012) Race and Ethnicity: Voters’ Party Preference in South African Elections. International Journal of African Renaissance Studies Multi-, Inter- and Transdisciplinarity, 7, 38-58. https://doi.org/10.1080/18186874.2013.774697|
| ||Nhlapo, M.S., Anderson, B.A. and Wentzel, M. (2017) Trends in Voting in South Africa 2003-2014. University of Michigan Population Studies Center, Ann Arbor.
| ||Electoral Commission of South Africa 2016, Municipal Election Results.
| ||Roodt, M. (2016) South Africa’s Local Elections: Reasons for Each Party to Be Happy and Sad. African Arguments.
| ||Brock, J. (2016) ANC Shaken to Core as South African Voters Look beyond Race. Thomson Reuters.
| ||Frith, A. (2017) Census 2011—Province “KwaZulu-Natal”.
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| ||Banseka, C. (2005) Development for Peace: In Search for Solutions to Conflicts in Sub-Saharan Africa. Universal Publishers, Boca Raton.|
| ||Makulilo, A.B., Ntaganda, E., Aywa, F.A., Sekaggya, M. and Osodo, P. (2016) Election Management Bodies in East Africa: A Comparative Study of Electoral Commissions to the Strengthening of Democracy. African Minds, New York.|
| ||Gecaga, M.G. (2007) Religious Movements and Democratisation in Kenya: Between the Sacred and the Profane. In: Murunga, G.R. and Nasong’o, S.W., Eds., Kenya: The Struggle for Democracy, Zed Books Ltd., London, 58-89.|
| ||Wanga, J. (2017) Nasa, Jubilee Party Campaigns to Go at Full Throttle. Daily Nation. http://bit.ly/2V5P3Cg|
| ||Graham, L., Stuart, L., Zulu, T. and Mthembu, S. (2017) Young South Africans Aren’t Apathetic, Just Fed Up with Formal Politics. The Conversation.
| ||Mail and Guardian (2013) Sample Survey of Young Blacks Believe DA Would Bring Back Apartheid. Mail and Guardian.
| ||Johnson, R.W. (2015) How Long will South Africa Survive? The Looming Crisis, C. Hurst, London.|
| ||Respondent One 2017 Interview with the Author on 27 November, Durban.|
| ||Corcoran, B. (2017) Anger over Helen Zille’s “Colonialism” Tweets. The Irish Times.
| ||Macdonald, G. (2015) Racial Politics and Campaign Strategy in South Africa’s 2009 Election. Politikon, 42, 155-176. https://doi.org/10.1080/02589346.2015.1005792|
| ||Martens, T. (2012) Opposition Indulging in Gutter Politics—ANCWL. Politicsweb.
| ||Ngalo, A., Dyantyi, H., Payne, S. and Merwe, M.V.D. (2018) Analysis: How Will the DA Shine Its Crown Without a “Dirty” ANC? Daily Maverick. http://bit.ly/2V7sn4T|
| ||Beresford, A. (2014) South Africa Gears Up for a Bruising Election Campaign. The Conversation.
| ||Mamdani, M. (2019) Why South Africa Can't Avoid Land Reforms. The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2019/06/17/opinion/south-africa-land-reform.html|
| ||Mutua, M. (2017) This Never Ending Political Circus Is All about Inclusion. Standard Digital. http://bit.ly/2V4aO5L|
| ||Mérino, M. (2013) Les élections générales du 4 mars 2013 au Kenya. Afrique Contemporaine, 3, 73-86. https://doi.org/10.3917/afco.247.0073|
| ||Shilaho, W.K. (2016) Ethnic Mobilisation and Kenya’s Foreign Policy in the Face of the International Criminal Court (ICC). Journal for Contemporary History, 41, 103-125. https://doi.org/10.18820/24150509/jch.v41i1.6|
| ||Wa-Mungai, M. (2007) “‘Is Marwa!’ It’s Ours”: Popular Music and Identity Politics in Kenyan Youth Culture. In: Njogu, K. and Oluoch-Olunya, G., Eds., Cultural Production and Change in Kenya: Building Bridges, Twaweza Communications, Nairobi, 47-62.|
| ||Barasa, L., Ahmed, M., Fredrick, F. and Apollo, S. (2017) Uhuru Warns against Secession Campaign as Nasa Vows Defiance. Daily Nation.
| ||Gitonga, W. (2017) Jubilee Supporters Hold Anti-Supreme Court Demos. Citizen Digital.
| ||Kenny, C. and Ahere, J. (2017) Elections Are Only Part of the Story in Kenya’s History of Post-Poll Violence. http://bit.ly/2vJqZ9J|
| ||Maichuhie, K. (2018) Authorities on the Spot Following near Eight-Hour Disruption of Transport along Nairobi-Nakuru Highway. Standard Digital.
| ||Crouse, G. (2018) The NA’s Resolution on EWC: A Clause-by-Clause Analysis. Politicsweb.
| ||Lange, J.D. (2017) Who Owns SA’s Land? News24. http://bit.ly/2vls0oo|
| ||African National Congress (2017) 54th National Conference: Report and Resolutions. ANC. https://bit.ly/2zCaq4o|
| ||Gerber, J. (2018) Land Expropriation without Compensation: What You Need to Know. News24.
| ||Masilela, B. (2018) DA Resolute against Land Expropriation without Compensation. The Citizen.
| ||Wrong, M. (2009) It’s Our Turn to Eat: The Story of a Kenyan Whistle-Blower. HarperCollins, Pymble.|