At COVID-19 time, as surface water and urban wastewater will constantly carry microbial pathogens, pathogens should be eliminated at least to degrees that do not have an effect on public health. Among the pathogen groups observed in water, viruses constitute the biggest danger since they frequently appear in much bigger levels and possess much greater infectivity than bacteria and parasitic protozoa. This work highlights the viruses especially in terms of composition and behavior in ecosystems and discusses the main disinfection techniques, especially thermal demobilization, chlorination and ozonation, and their involved mechanisms. Precise estimates of viral demobilization and log removal throughout water treatment techniques stay crucial for evaluating danger to human health, developing regulations, and informing engineering design of full-scale treatment plants. Practical demobilization details developed at bench-scale for human pathogens like norovirus and COVID-19 will be vital. The more we study the composition of viruses and their fate in ecosystems, and the more we try the techniques for their disposal in water treatment plants, the more we realize that it is difficult to get rid of them using a single treatment method. Employing advanced water treatment trains (such as coagulation, reverse osmosis, ultrafiltration, advanced oxidation) was proposed to guarantee removals of viruses to differing degrees of regulatory control following the degrees of human subjection and related health hazards.
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