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Dealing with Cyanobacteria and Cyanotoxins: Engineering Viewpoints

DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1106363, PP. 1-20

Subject Areas: Chemical Engineering & Technology

Keywords: Cyanobacteria, Cyanotoxins, Nitrogen (N), Phosphorous (P), Water Treatment, Best Available Technology (BAT)

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Abstract

Since the eutrophication of lakes stays a more and more spread event, cyanobacterial blooms are happening in numerous regions throughout the world. Even if numerous studies have been published, there is presently no outstanding technique for eliminating bloom. This review discusses the health hazards related to cyanotoxins, causes of tastes, and odors in water supplies. To deal with algae and cyanotoxins, the main engineers’ tasks are briefly introduced. A special focus is accorded to the relationships between nutrients and cyanobacteria growth. Procedures for better nutrients input monitoring are presented. Main algae control technologies are briefly presented such as chemical control, aeration, mixing, and ultrasonic treatment. Several lab-scale implementations for algae removal are also examined. As ultrasonic treatment has attracted growing interest, its progress and dares are introduced. Avoiding chemicals addition, a judicious combination of aeration and mixing should attract more attention as the best available technology for dealing with algae and cyanotoxins directly on lakes. Green techniques like distillation and membrane processes should constitute the last stage of the treatment trains in the modern water treatment plant for securely retain cyanotoxins and organic matters. As precaution is better than treatment and with a view to reducing the external load, it is essential to control catchments via monitoring external nutrient sources, such as nitrogen and phosphorous, in water bodies.

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Ghernaout, D. and Elboughdiri, N. (2020). Dealing with Cyanobacteria and Cyanotoxins: Engineering Viewpoints. Open Access Library Journal, 7, e6363. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1106363.

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