Use of hand sanitizers has become a cornerstone in clinical practice for the prevention of disease transmission between practitioners and patients. There are a number of hand sanitizers sold on the Ugandan market with labels on their packages that claim that the hand sanitizer can kill 99.999% of germs and also there are hospitals that embarked on the local production of alcohol based hand sanitizer whose efficacy data are not locally available. Objective: To evaluate antibacterial efficacy of locally produced alcohol based hand sanitizer and commonly available commercial hand sanitizer used in healthcare facilities in Uganda. Method: This was an in vitro experimental, laboratory-based study of two different brands of hand sanitizers commonly used in healthcare facilities in Uganda and these were compared to a reference standard 60% Isopropyl alcohol. Efficacy was evaluated using standard organisms of Klebsiella pneumoniae American Type Culture Collection (ATCC 13883), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), and S. aureus (ATCC 25923) as per prEN12054, a European standard method. The logarithmic and percentage reduction factors (RF) were assessed at baseline and after treatment. Results: Both hand sanitizers studied were able to reduce bacteria by more than 105-fold within 15 seconds. Efficacy was independent of the alcohol concentration in each brand (Saraya 70% and locally made 80% alcohol). Conclusion: All of the hand sanitizers assessed had efficacy that meets World Health Organization (WHO) and PrEN12054 standards. From this study we are in agreement with the use of the locally made hand sanitizer and Saraya. The two hand sanitizers had broad antibacterial spectrum. However, there is a need to evaluate efficacy and organoleptic properties using in vivo studies.
Cite this paper
Fred, T. , Sophia, K. , Alex, S. , Emmanuel, B. , Tom, L. and Lucas, A. (2020). Comparison of Antibacterial Efficacy of Locally Produced Alcohol Based Hand Sanitizer and Commonly Available Commercial Hand Sanitizer Used in Healthcare Facilities in Uganda. Open Access Library Journal, 7, e6221. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1106221.
Hassan, A.O., Muhibi, M.A. and Adebimpe, W.O. (2012) A Survey of Enterobacteriaceae in Hospital and Community Acquired Infections among Adults in a Tertiary Health Institution in Southwestern Nigeria. African Journal of Microbiology Research, 6, 5162-5167.
Agaba, P., Tumukunde, J., Tindimwebwa, J.V.B. and Kwizera, A. (2017) Nosocomial Bacterial Infections and Their Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns among Patients in Ugandan Intensive Care Units: A Cross Sectional Study. BMC Research Notes, 10, 349. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13104-017-2695-5
Bondurant, S.W., Duley, C.M. and Harbell, J.W. (2019) Demonstrating the Persistent Antibacterial Efficacy of a Hand Sanitizer Containing Benzalkonium Chloride on Human Skin at 1, 2, and 4 Hours after Application. American Journal of Infection Control, 47, 928-932. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajic.2019.01.004
Ochwoto, M., Muita, L., Talaam, K., Wanjala, C., Ogeto, F., Wachira, F., et al. (2017) Anti-Bacterial Efficacy of Alcoholic Hand Rubs in the Kenyan Market, 2015. Antimicrobial Resistance & Infection Control, 6, 17.
Kampf, G., Meyer, B. and Goroncy-Bermes, P. (2003) Comparison of Two Test Methods for the Determination of Sufficient Antimicrobial Efficacy of Three Different Alcohol-Based Hand Rubs for Hygienic Hand Disinfection. Journal of Hospital Infection, 55, 220-225. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0195-6701(03)00255-X
Kiehlbauch, J.A., Hannett, G.E., Salfinger, M., Archinal, W., Monserrat, C. and Carlyn, C. (2000) Use of the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards Guidelines for Disk Diffusion Susceptibility Testing in New York State Laboratories. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 38, 3341-3348.
Sax, H., Allegranzi, B., Chraiti, M.-N., Boyce, J., Larson, E. and Pittet, D. (2009) The World Health Organization Hand Hygiene Observation Method. American Journal of Infection Control, 37, 827-834. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajic.2009.07.003
Jain, V.M., Karibasappa, G.N., Dodamani, A.S., Prashanth, V.K. and Mali, G.V. (2016) Comparative Assessment of Antimicrobial Efficacy of Different Hand Sanitizers: An in Vitro Study. Dental Research Journal, 13, 424-431.
Sherabah, N., Yassin, A., Mohamed, A. and Amin, M. (2012) Efficacy and Toxicity of Neutralizers against Disinfectants and Antiseptics Used in Vaccine Production Facility. African Journal of Microbiology Research, 6, 6565-6571.