There has been growing concern over maternal under-nutrition and its effects on pregnancy outcome. The term maternal under-nutrition is complex and rather ambiguous and fails to reflect a clear definition. Defining maternal under-nutrition will help improve diagnosis, monitoring and evaluation of the impact of under-nourishment in women to prevent associated birth outcomes. There is a direct link between maternal under-nutrition and undesired birth outcomes such as intrauterine growth restriction, pre-term labour and prematurity. This is likely to give rise to long lasting effects. Methodology Walker and Avant’s strategic eight-step method of concept analysis was used in analyzing the concept of maternal under-nutrition. Walker and Avant stress the importance of antecedents and attributes in describing a concept of interest. Literature search was done in one month using Google Scholar, Pub Med and Medline as search engines. Results There are several definitions of maternal under-nutrition available online which lacks standardization. The definition for maternal malnutrition was multi-varied in some instances, it was based on clinical evaluation yet in others it was based on BMI calculations and Mid Upper Arm Circumference. Conclusion Malnutrition is both seen in over-nutrition and under-nutrition. For the purpose of this paper we look at malnutrition as it relates to under-nutrition as it is of concern to less developed countries in particular southern Africa. Maternal under-nutrition is perceived to indirectly result in increased mortality and morbidities during the perinatal period. Maternal under-nourishment should be evaluated using BMI, Mid Upper Arm Circumference, skin fold and unintended weight loss for consecutive encounters using a standard scale.
Cite this paper
Manditsvara, T. , Haruzivishe, C. , Muzokura, E. , Munsaka, J. and Ndaimani, A. (2020). Maternal Under-Nutrition: A Concept Paper. Open Access Library Journal, 7, e6183. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1106183.
Stevens, G.A., Finucane, M.M. and Paciorek, C.J. (2016) Levels and Trends in Low Height-for-Age. In: Reproductive, Maternal, Newborn, and Child Health: Disease Control Priorities, The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank, Washington DC, 85.
Fakier, A., Petro, G. and Fawcus, S. (2017) Mid-Upper Arm Circumference: A Surrogate for Body Mass Index in Pregnant Women. South African Medical Journal, 107, 606-610. https://doi.org/10.7196/SAMJ.2017.v107i7.12255
Khalid, N., Aslam, Z., Kausar, F., Irshad, H. and Anwer, P. (2017) Maternal Malnutrition and Its Kick on Child Growth: An Alarming Trim for Pakistan. Journal of Food, Nutrition and Population Health, 1, 3-24.
Halm, M., et al. (1993) Microbiological and Aromatic Characteristics of Fermented Maize Doughs for Kenkey Production in Ghana. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 19, 135-143. https://doi.org/10.1016/0168-1605(93)90179-K
Verger, E.O., Dop, M.-C. and Martin-Prével, Y. (2017) Not All Dietary Diversity Scores Can Legitimately Be Interpreted as Proxies of Diet Quality. Public Health Nutrition, 20, 2067-2068. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1368980016003402
Ahmed, S.M., et al. (1998) Chronic Energy Deficiency in Women from Rural Bangladesh: Some Socioeconomic Determinants. Journal of Biosocial Science, 30, 349-358.
Sinha, S., Patro, N. and Patro, I.K. (2018) Maternal Protein Malnutrition: Current and Future Perspectives of Spirulina Supplementation in Neuroprotection. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 12, 966. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2018.00966
Araujo, C., et al. (2009) Effect of Birth Size and Proportionality on BMI and Skinfold Thickness in Early Adolescence: Prospective Birth Cohort Study. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 63, 634-639. https://doi.org/10.1038/ejcn.2008.20