All Title Author
Keywords Abstract

Publish in OALib Journal
ISSN: 2333-9721
APC: Only $99


Removing Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria (ARB) Carrying Genes (ARGs): Challenges and Future Trends

DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1106003, PP. 1-16

Subject Areas: Bioengineering, Biotechnology, Microbiology

Keywords: Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria (ARB), Antibiotic Resistance Genes (ARGs), Wastewater Treatment, Disinfection, Oxidation, Escherichia coli

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib


Developed control of chemical disinfection techniques is beginning to be pro-gressively significant in order to equilibrate under-treatment (minimal pathogen demobilization) and over-treatment (immoderate consumption of disinfectant and disinfection by-products generation) that way giving great ecological and economic advantages. This work reviews the most recent and pertinent re-searches in this field of eliminating Antibiotic-resistant Bacteria (ARB) carrying genes (ARGs) during wastewater treatment especially disinfection. Traditional disinfection techniques may not be efficient in demobilizing ARB and the simultaneous liberation of ARB and antibiotics at sub-lethal concentrations into municipal wastewater treatment plant effluent may promote the develop-ment of resistance among bacteria in receiving water. The pathway of the in-fluences of diverse disinfection techniques in water and wastewater (chlorina-tion, UV irradiation, Fenton reaction, ozonation, and photocatalytic oxidation) deserves more attention. The impacts of constructed wetlands and nanotech-nology on ARB and ARG have to be more explored. As the best available technology, membranes processes should be widely adopted through the world for removing ARB and ARGs from the perspective of reusing treated wastewater as drinking water. These safe barriers against pollutants diffusion in nature merit more technical and economic expansion for their larger industrial application especially in developing countries.

Cite this paper

Ghernaout, D. and Elboughdiri, N. (2020). Removing Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria (ARB) Carrying Genes (ARGs): Challenges and Future Trends. Open Access Library Journal, 7, e6003. doi:


[1]  Yoon, Y., Chung, H.J., Di, D.Y.W., Dodd, M.C., Hur, H.-G. and Lee, Y. (2017) Inactivation Efficiency of Plasmid-Encoded Antibi-otic Resistance Genes during Water Treatment with Chlorine, UV, and UV/H2O2. Water Research, 123, 783-793.
[2]  WHO (World Health Organization) (2014) Antimicrobial Resistance: Global Report on Surveillance.
[3]  Keen, P.L. and Montforts, M.H.M.M. (2012) Antimicrobial Resistance in the Environment. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken.
[4]  Makowska, N., Koczura, R. and Mokracka, J. (2016) Class 1 Integrase, Sulfonamide and Tetracycline Resistance Genes in Wastewater Treatment Plant and Surface Water. Chemosphere, 144, 1665-1673.
[5]  Roca, I., Akova, M., Baquero, F., Carlet, J., Cavaleri, M., Coenen, S., Cohen, J., Findlay, D., Gyssens, I., Heure, O.E., Kahlmeter, G., Kruse, H., Laxminarayan, R., Liébana, E., López-Cerero, L., MacGowan, A., Martins, M., Rodríguez-Ba?o, J., Rolain, J.-M., Segovia, C., Sigauque, B., Tacconelli, E., Wellington, E. and Vila, J. (2015) The Global Threat of Antimicrobial Resistance: Science for Intervention. New Microbes and New Infections, 6, 22-29.
[6]  Luprano, M.L., De Sanctis, M., Del Moro, G., Di Iaconi, C., Lopez, A. and Levantesi, C. (2016) Antibiotic Resistance Genes Fate and Removal by a Technological Treatment Solution for Water Reuse in Agriculture. Science of the Total Environment, 571, 809-818.
[7]  Berendonk, T., Manaia, C.M., Merlin, C., Fatta-Kassinos, D., Cytryn, E., Walsh, F., Bürgmann, H., S?rum, H., Norstr?m, M., Pons, M.-N., Kreuzinger, N., Huovinen, P., Stefani, S., Schwartz, T., Kisand, V., Baquero, F. and Martinez, J.L. (2015) Tackling Antibiotic Resistance: The Environmental Framework. Nature Reviews Microbiology, 13, 310-317.
[8]  Pruden, A. (2014) Balancing Water Sustainability and Public Health Goals in the Face of Growing Concerns about Antibiotic Resistance. Environmental Science & Technology, 48, 5-14.
[9]  Dodd, M.C. (2012) Potential Impacts of Disinfection Processes on Elimination and Deacti-vation of Antibiotic Resistance Genes during Water and Wastewater Treatment. Journal of Environmental Monitoring, 14, 1754-1771.
[10]  ?uczkiewicz, A., Jankowska, K., Fudala-Ksi??ek, S. and Olańczuk-Neyman, K. (2010) Antimicrobial Resistance of Fecal Indicators in Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant. Water Research, 44, 5089-5097.
[11]  Rizzo, L., Manaia, C., Merlin, C., Schwartz, T., Dagot, C., Poly, M.C., Michael, I. and Fatta-Kassinos, D. (2013) Urban Wastewater Treatment Plants as Hotspots for Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria and Genes Spread into the Environment: A Review. Science of the Total Environment, 447, 345-360.
[12]  Chen, H. and Zhang, M. (2013) Effects of Advanced Treatment Systems on the Removal of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Wastewater Treatment Plants from Hangzhou, China. Environmental Science & Technology, 47, 8157-8163.
[13]  Czekalski, N., Berthold, T., Caucci, S., Egli, A. and Bürgmann, H. (2012) Increased Levels of Multiresistant Bacteria and Resistance Genes after Wastewater Treatment and Their Dis-semination into Lake Geneva, Switzerland. Frontiers in Microbiology, 3, 1-18.
[14]  Ghernaout, D. (2017) Water Treatment Chlorination: An Updated Mechanistic Insight Review. Chemistry Research Journal, 2, 125-138.
[15]  Ghernaout, D., Moulay, S., AitMessaoudene, N., Aichouni, M., Naceur, M.W. and Boucherit, A. (2014) Coagulation and Chlorination of NOM and Algae in Water Treatment: A Review. International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis, 2, 23-34.
[16]  Ghernaout, D., Laribi, C., Alghamdi, A., Ghernaout, B., AitMessaoudene, N. and Aichouni, M. (2018) Decolorization of BF Cibacete Blue (CB) and Red Solophenyle 3BL (RS) Using Aluminum Sulfate and Ferric Chloride. World Journal of Applied Chemistry, 3, 32-40.
[17]  Ghernaout, D., Alghamdi, A., Aichouni, M. and Touahmia, M. (2018) The Lethal Water Tri-Therapy: Chlorine, Alum, and Polyelectrolyte. World Journal of Applied Chemistry, 3, 65-71.
[18]  Jacangelo, J.G. and Trussell, R.R. (2002) International Report: Water and Wastewater Disinfection—Trends, Issues, and Practices. Water Science and Technology: Water Supply, 2, 147-157.
[19]  Ghernaout, D., Ghernaout, B., Saiba, A., Boucherit, A. and Kellil, A. (2009) Removal of Humic Acids by Continuous Electromagnetic Treatment Followed by Electrocoagulation in Batch Using Aluminium Electrodes. Desalination, 239, 295-308.
[20]  Ghernaout, D., Ghernaout, B. and Kellil, A. (2009) Natural Organic Matter Removal and Enhanced Coagulation as a Link between Coagulation and Electrocoagulation. Desalination and Water Treatment, 2, 203-222.
[21]  Ghernaout, D., Ghernaout, B., Boucherit, A., Naceur, M.W., Khelifa, A. and Kellil, A. (2009) Study on Mechanism of Electrocoagulation with Iron Electrodes in Idealised Conditions and Electrocoagulation of Humic Acids Solution in Batch Using Aluminium Electrodes. Desalination and Water Treatment, 8, 91-99.
[22]  Belhout, D., Ghernaout, D., Djezzar-Douakh, S. and Kellil, A. (2010) Electrocoagulation of a Raw Water of Ghrib Dam (Algeria) in Batch Using Iron Electrodes. Desalination and Water Treatment, 16, 1-9.
[23]  Ghernaout, D. and Ghernaout, B. (2012) Sweep Flocculation as a Second Form of Charge Neutralisation: A Review. Desalination and Water Treatment, 44, 15-28.
[24]  Ghernaout, D. and Ghernaout, B. (2012) On the Concept of the Future Drinking Water Treatment Plant: Algae Harvesting from the Algal Biomass for Biodiesel Production: A Review. Desalination and Water Treatment, 49, 1-18.
[25]  Ghernaout, D., Irki, S. and Boucherit, A. (2014) Removal of Cu2 and Cd2 , and Humic Acid and Phenol by Electrocoagulation Using Iron Electrodes. Desalination and Water Treatment, 52, 3256-3270.
[26]  Eggen, R.I.L., Hollender, J., Joss, A., Sch?rer, M. and Stamm, C. (2014) Reducing the Discharge of Micropollutants in the Aquatic Environment: The Benefits of Upgrading Wastewater Treatment Plants. Environmental Science & Technology, 48, 7683-7689.
[27]  Ghernaout, D. and Ghernaout, B. (2010) From Chemical Disinfection to Electrodisinfection: The Obligatory Itinerary? Desalination and Water Treatment, 16, 156-175.
[28]  Boucherit, A., Moulay, S., Ghernaout, D., Al-Ghonamy, A.I., Ghernaout, B., Naceur, M.W., AitMessaoudene, N., Aichouni, M., Mahjoubi, A.A. and Elboughdiri, N.A. (2015) New Trends in Disinfection By-Products Formation upon Water Treatment. Journal of Research & Developments in Chemistry, 2015, Article ID: 628833.
[29]  Ghernaout, D. (2017) Microorganisms’ Electrochemical Disinfection Phenomena. EC Microbiology, 9, 160-169.
[30]  Ghernaout, D. (2018) Disinfection and DBPs Removal in Drinking Water Treatment: A Perspective for a Green Technology. International Journal of Advanced and Applied Sciences, 5, 108-117.
[31]  Ghernaout, D., Aichouni, M. and Touahmia, M. (2019) Mechanistic Insight into Disinfection by Electrocoagulation: A Review. Desalination and Water Treatment, 141, 68-81.
[32]  Ghernaout, D., Alghamdi, A. and Ghernaout, B. (2019) Microorganisms’ Killing: Chemical Disinfection vs. Electrodisinfection. Applied Engineering, 3, 13-19.
[33]  Ghernaout, D. (2019) Disinfection via Electro-coagulation Process: Implied Mechanisms and Future Tendencies, EC Microbiology, 15, 79-90.
[34]  Alexander, J., Knopp, G., D?-tsch, A., Wieland, A. and Schwartz, T. (2016) Ozone Treatment of Conditioned Wastewater Selects Antibiotic Resistance Genes, Opportunistic Bacteria, and Induce Strong Population Shifts. Science of the Total Environment, 559, 103-112.
[35]  Czekalski, N., Imminger, S., Salhi, E., Veljkovic, M., Kleffel, K., Drissner, D., Hammes, F., Bürgmann, H. and von Gunten, U. (2016) Inactivation of Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria and Resistance Genes by Ozone: From Laboratory Experiments to Full-Scale Wastewater Treatment. Environmental Science & Technology, 50, 11862-11871.
[36]  Ferro, G., Guarino, F., Cicatelli, A. and Rizzo, L. (2017) β-Lactams Resistance Gene Quantification in an Antibiotic Resistant Escherichia coli Water Suspension Treated by Advanced Oxidation with UV/H2O2. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 323, 426-433.
[37]  Huang, J.-J., Hu, H.-Y., Wu, Y.-H., Wei, B. and Lu, Y. (2013) Effect of Chlorination and Ultraviolet Disinfection on tetA-Mediated Tetracycline Resistance of Escherichia coli. Chemosphere, 90, 2247-2253.
[38]  Lüddeke, F., He, S., Gallert, C., Winter, J., Güde, H. and L?ffler, H. (2015) Removal of Total and Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria in Advanced Wastewater Treatment by Ozonation in Combination with Different Filtering Techniques. Water Research, 69, 243-251.
[39]  McKinney, C.W. and Pruden, A. (2012) Ultraviolet Disinfection of Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria and Their Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Water and Wastewater. Environmental Science & Technology, 46, 13393-13400.
[40]  Pak, G., Salcedo, D.E., Lee, H., Oh, J., Maeng, S.K., Song, K.G., Hong, S.W., Kim, H.-C., Chandran, K. and Kim, S. (2016) Comparison of Antibiotic Resistance Removal Efficiencies Using Ozone Disinfection under Different pH and Suspended Solids and Humic Substance Concentrations. Environmental Science & Technology, 50, 7590-7600.
[41]  Sousaa, J.M., Macedob, G., Pedrosac, M., Becerra-Castroa, C., Castro-Silvad, S., Pereirac, M.F.R., Silva, A.M.T., Nunesa, O.C. and Manaia, C.M. (2017) Ozonation and UV254 nm Radiation for the Removal of Microorganisms and Antibiotic Resistance Genes from Urban Wastewater. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 323, 434-441.
[42]  Yuan, Q.-B., Guo, M.-T. and Yang, J. (2015) Fate of Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria and Genes during Wastewater Chlorination: Impact for Antibiotic Resistance Control. PLoS ONE, 10, e119403.
[43]  Zhang, Y., Zhuang, Y., Geng, J., Ren, H., Zhang, Y., Ding, L. and Xu, K. (2015) Inactivation of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Municipal Wastewater Effluent by Chlorination Disinfection-Trends, Issues, and Prac-tices. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 2, 147-157.
[44]  Zhuang, Y., Ren, H., Geng, J., Zhang, Y., Zhang, Y., Ding, L. and Xu, K. (2015) Inactivation of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Municipal Wastewater by Chlorination, Ultraviolet, and Ozonation Disinfection. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 22, 7037-7044.
[45]  Ghernaout, D. and Elboughdiri, N. (2019) Mechanistic Insight into Disinfection Using Ferrate (VI). Open Access Library Journal, 6, e5946.
[46]  Ghernaout, D. and Elboughdiri, N. (2019) Water Disinfection: Ferrate (VI) as the Greenest Chemical—A Review. Applied Engineering, 3, 171-180.
[47]  Ghernaout, D., Touahmia, M. and Aichouni, M. (2019) Disinfecting Water: Electrocoagulation as an Efficient Process. Applied Engineering, 3, 1-12.
[48]  Ghernaout, D. (2019) Greening Electrocoagulation Process for Disinfecting Water. Applied Engineering, 3, 27-31.
[49]  Ghernaout, D. (2019) Electrocoagulation and Electrooxidation for Disinfecting Water: New Breakthroughs and Implied Mechanisms, Applied Engineering, 3, 125-133.
[50]  Ghernaout, D. and Elboughdiri, N. (2019) Electrocoagulation Process Intensification for Disinfecting Water: A Review. Applied Engineering, 3, 140-147.
[51]  Ghernaout, D. and Elboughdiri, N. (2019) Iron Electrocoagulation Process for Disinfecting Water: A Review. Applied Engineering, 3, 154-158.
[52]  Chang, P.H., Juhrend, B., Olson, T.M., Marrs, C.F. and Wigginton, K.R. (2017) Degradation of Extracellular Antibiotic Resistance Genes with UV254 Treatment. Environmental Science & Technology, 51, 6185-6192.
[53]  Sü, J., Volz, S., Obst, U. and Schwartz, T. (2009) Application of a Molecular Biology Concept for the Detection of DNA Damage and Repair during UV Disinfection. Water Research, 43, 3705-3716.
[54]  Ghernaout, B., Ghernaout, D. and Saiba, A. (2010) Algae and Cyanotoxins Removal by Coagulation/Flocculation: A Review. Desalination and Water Treatment, 20, 133-143.
[55]  Ghernaout, D., Mariche, A., Ghernaout, B. and Kellil, A. (2010) Electromagnetic Treatment-bi-Electrocoagulation of Humic Acid in Continuous Mode Using Response Surface Method for Its Optimization and Ap-plication on Two Surface Waters. Desalination and Water Treatment, 22, 311-329.
[56]  Ghernaout, D., Naceur, M.W. and Aouabed, A. (2011) On the Dependence of Chlorine By-Products Generated Species Formation of the Electrode Material and Applied Charge during Electrochemical Water Treatment. Desalination, 270, 9-22.
[57]  Ghernaout, D., Benblidia, C. and Khemici, F. (2015) Microalgae Removal from Ghrib Dam (AinDefla, Algeria) Water by Electroflotation Using Stainless Steel Electrodes. Desalination and Water Treatment, 54, 3328-3337.
[58]  Ghernaout, D., Badis, A., Braikia, G., Mataam, N., Fekhar, M., Ghernaout, B. and Boucherit, A. (2017) Enhanced Coagulation for Algae Removal in a Typical Algeria Water Treatment Plant. Environmental Engineering and Management Journal, 16, 2303-2315.
[59]  Irki, S., Ghernaout, D. and Naceur, M.W. (2017) Decolourization of Methyl Orange (MO) by Electrocoagulation (EC) Using Iron Electrodes under a Magnetic Field (MF). Desalination and Water Treatment, 79, 368-377.
[60]  Ghernaout, D. (2018) Magnetic Field Generation in the Water Treatment Perspectives: An Overview. International Journal of Advanced and Applied Sciences, 5, 193-203.
[61]  Saiba, A., Kourdali, S., Ghernaout, B. and Ghernaout, D. (2010) In Desalination, from 1987 to 2009, the Birth of a New Seawater Pretreatment Process: Electrocoagulation—An Overview. Desalination and Water Treatment, 16, 201-217.
[62]  Ghernaout, D. and Ghernaout, B. (2011) On the Controversial Effect of Sodium Sulphate as Supporting Electrolyte on Electrocoagulation Process: A Review. Desalination and Water Treatment, 27, 243-254.
[63]  Ghernaout, D., Ghernaout, B. and Naceur, M.W. (2011) Embodying the Chemical Water Treatment in the Green Chemistry: A Review. Desalination, 271, 1-10.
[64]  Ghernaout, D. and Naceur, M.W. (2011) Ferrate (VI): In Situ Generation and Water Treatment—A Review. Desalination and Water Treatment, 30, 319-332.
[65]  Ghernaout, D., Naceur, M.W. and Ghernaout, B. (2011) A Review of Electrocoagulation as a Promising Coagulation Process for Improved Organic and Inorganic Matters Removal by Electrophoresis and Electroflotation. Desalination and Water Treatment, 28, 287-320.
[66]  AitMessaoudene, N., Naceur, M.W., Ghernaout, D., Alghamdi, A. and Aichouni, M. (2018) On the Validation Perspectives of the Proposed Novel Dimensionless Fouling Index. International Journal of Advanced and Applied Sciences, 5, 116-122.
[67]  Ghernaout, D., Badis, A., Ghernaout, B. and Kellil, A. (2008) Application of Electrocoagulation in Escherichia coli Culture and Two Surface Waters. Desalination, 219, 118-125.
[68]  Ghernaout, D. (2013) Advanced Oxidation Phenomena in Electrocoagulation Process: A Myth or a Reality? Desalination and Water Treatment, 51, 7536-7554.
[69]  Ghernaout, D. (2019) Virus Removal by Electrocoagulation and Electrooxidation: New Findings and Future Trends. Journal of Environmental Science and Allied Research, 85-90.
[70]  Rizzo, L., Fiorentino, A. and Anselmo, A. (2013) Advanced Treatment of Urban Wastewater by UV Radiation: Effect on Antibiotics and Antibiotic-Resistant E. coli Strains. Chemosphere, 92, 171-176.
[71]  Turolla, A., Cattaneo, M., Marazzi, F., Mezzanotte, V. and Antonelli, M. (2018) Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria in Urban Sewage: Role of Full-Scale Wastewater Treatment Plants on Environmental Spreading. Chemosphere, 191, 761-769.
[72]  Luukkonen, T., Heyninck, T., R?m?, J. and Lassi, U. (2015) Comparison of Organic Peracids in Wastewater Treatment: Disinfection, Oxidation and Corrosion. Water Research, 85, 275-285.
[73]  Turolla, A., Sabatino, R., Fontaneto, D., Eckert, E.M., Colinas, N., Corno, G., Citterio, B., Biavasco, F., Antonelli, M., Mauro, A., Mangiaterra, G. and Di Cesare, A. (2017) Defence Strategies and Antibiotic Resistance Gene Abundance in Enterococci under Stress by Exposure to Low Doses of Peracetic Acid. Chemosphere, 185, 480-488.
[74]  Manoli, K., Sarathy, S., Maffettone, R. and Santoro, D. (2019) Detailed Modeling and Advanced Control for Chemical Disinfection of Secondary Effluent Wastewater by Peracetic Acid. Water Research, 153, 251-262.
[75]  Ghernaout, D. and El-Wakil, A. (2017) Requiring Reverse Osmosis Membranes Modifications: An Overview. American Journal of Chemical Engineering, 5, 81-88.
[76]  Ghernaout, D. (2017) Reverse Osmosis Process Membranes Modeling: A Historical Overview. Journal of Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering Civil, 2, 112-122.
[77]  Ghernaout, D., El-Wakil, A., Alghamdi, A., Elboughdiri, N. and Mahjoubi, A. (2018) Membrane Post-Synthesis Modifications and How It Came about. Interna-tional Journal of Advanced and Applied Sciences, 5, 60-64.
[78]  Ghernaout, D. (2019) Brine Recycling: Towards Membrane Processes as the Best Available Technology. Applied Engineering, 3, 71-84.
[79]  Sharma, V.K., Johnson, N., Cizmas, L., McDonald, T.J. and Kim, H. (2016) A Review of the Influence of Treatment Strategies on Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria and Antibiotic Resistance Genes. Chemosphere, 150, 702-714.
[80]  Ghernaout, D., Alghamdi, A., Touahmia, M., Aichouni, M. and AitMessaoudene, N. (2018) Nanotechnology Phenomena in the Light of the Solar Energy. Journal of Energy, Environmental & Chemical Engineering, 3, 1-8.
[81]  Guo, M., Yuan, Q. and Yang, J. (2015) Distinguishing Effects of Ultraviolet Exposure and Chlorination on the Horizontal Transfer of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Municipal Wastewater. Environmental Science & Technology, 49, 5771-5778.
[82]  McConnell, M.M., Hansen, L.T., Jamieson, R.C., Neudorf, K.D., Yost, C.K. and Tong, A. (2018) Removal of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Two Tertiary Level Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants. Science of the Total Environment, 643, 292-300.
[83]  Ghernaout, D. (2017) Water Reuse (WR): The Ultimate and Vital Solution for Water Supply Issues. International Journal of Sustainable Development Research, 3, 36-46.
[84]  Ghernaout, D., Alshammari, Y., Alghamdi, A., Aichouni, M., Touahmia, M. and AitMessaoudene, N. (2018) Water Reuse: Extenuating Membrane Fouling in Membrane Processes. International Journal of Envi-ronmental Chemistry, 2, 1-12.
[85]  Ghernaout, D., Elboughdiri, N. and Al Arni, S. (2019) Water Reuse (WR): Dares, Restrictions, and Trends. Applied Engineering, 3, 159-170.
[86]  Ghernaout, D., Aichouni, M. and Alghamdi, A. (2018) Applying Big Data (BD) in Water Treatment Industry: A New Era of Advance. International Journal of Advanced and Applied Sciences, 5, 89-97.
[87]  Alshammari, Y., Ghernaout, D., Aichouni, M. and Touahmia, M. (2018) Improving Operational Procedures in Riyadh’s (Saudi Arabia) Water Treatment Plants Using Quality Tools. Applied Engineering, 2, 60-71.
[88]  Ghernaout, D. (2019) Greening Cold Fusion as an Energy Source for Water Treatment Distillation: A Perspective. American Journal of Quantum Chemistry and Molecular Spectroscopy, 3, 1-5.
[89]  Ghernaout, D. (2017) Environmental Principles in the Holy Koran and the Sayings of the Prophet Muhammad. American Journal of Environmental Protection, 6, 75-79.
[90]  Ghernaout, D., Elboughdiri, N. and Ghareba, S. (2019) Drinking Water Reuse: One-Step Closer to Overpassing the “Yuck Factor”. Open Access Library Journal, 6, e5895.
[91]  Al Arni, S., Amous, J. and Ghernaout, D. (2019) On the Perspective of Applying of a New Method for Wastewater Treatment Technology: Modification of the Third Traditional Stage with Two Units, One by Cultivating Microalgae and Another by Solar Vaporization. International Journal of Environmental Sciences & Natural Resources, 16, Article ID: 555934.
[92]  Ghernaout, D. (2013) The Best Available Technology of Water/Wastewater Treatment and Seawater Desalination: Simulation of the Open Sky Seawater Distillation. Green and Sustainable Chemistry, 3, 68-88.
[93]  Ghernaout, D. (2017) The Holy Koran Revelation: Iron Is a “Sent Down” Metal. American Journal of Environmental Protection, 6, 101-104.
[94]  Ghernaout, D. (2018) Increasing Trends towards Drinking Water Reclamation from Treated Wastewater. World Journal of Applied Chemistry, 3, 1-9.
[95]  Ghernaout, D., Alshammari, Y. and Alghamdi, A. (2018) Improving Energetically Operational Procedures in Wastewater Treatment Plants. International Journal of Advanced and Applied Sciences, 5, 64-72.
[96]  Ghernaout, D. (2019) Reviviscence of Biological Wastewater Treatment: A Review. Applied Engineering, 3, 46-55.


comments powered by Disqus

Contact Us


微信:OALib Journal