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Antimicrobial Potentials of Vernonia amygdalina and Honey on Vancomycin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus from Clinical and Environmental Sources

DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105437, PP. 1-13

Subject Areas: Microbiology

Keywords: Vancomycin-Resistant S. aureus, Honey, Vernonia amygdalina, Antibacterial Activity

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Abstract

Background and Objective: Vancomycin has been a cost effective and frontline antibiotic in the treatment of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus for many years. However, some vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA) have been recently reported. This study therefore aimed to determine the antimicrobial effects of Vernonia amygdalina and honey on VRSA from environmental and clinical sources. Materials and Methods: Vernonia amygdalina plant was sourced from farmland within Ekiti State University vicinity while honey samples, Blessed honey and Sunshine honey, were purchased from stores in Ado-Ekiti and Ondo State respectively. Ethanolic and aqueous extracts of V. amygdalina parts were prepared using standard method. The extracts were screened for the presence of some secondary metabolites using standard procedures. Honey brands were also analyzed physicochemically for these parameters: appearance, colour, pH and moisture content, according to standard methods. The antimicrobial activities of extracts of V. amygdalina and different samples of honey against the VRSA were performed using the Kirby Bauer’s method. Data from the study were statistically analyzed using descriptive, Pearson’s correlation and regression. Results: Phytochemical screening of V. amygdalina extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tan-nins, saponins and phenols at varied concentrations. Comparatively, the ethanolic extracts of the plant parts had higher concentration of these me-tabolites than their aqueous extracts. Differences were observed in the physicochemical parameters of both honey samples. Also, the antimicrobial activities of the plant extracts and honey brands demonstrated effective inhibition against most of the VRSA, though, in a concentration dependent manner. Conclusion: Findings from this study suggest that the leaves, barks and roots of this plant as well as honey could be very useful in the therapy against VRSA.

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Oluyege, J. O. , Orjiakor, P. I. , Olowe, B. M. , Miriam, U. O. and Oluwasegun, O. D. (2019). Antimicrobial Potentials of Vernonia amygdalina and Honey on Vancomycin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus from Clinical and Environmental Sources. Open Access Library Journal, 6, e5437. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1105437.

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