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Approach to Primary Immunodeficiencies for the Non-Immunologist Physicians

DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105419, PP. 1-15

Subject Areas: Allergy & Clinical Immunology

Keywords: Primary Immunodeficiencies, Immunodeficiency, Approach, Lymphopenia

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Abstract

Introduction: Primary immunodeficiencies are a spectrum of diseases that encompasses alteration of the innate and adaptive immune response. Isolated lymphocytopenia may be a manifestation of primary immunodeficiency, which is rarely considered as a diagnostic option by non-immunological physicians. Objectives: To conduct a brief review of the primary immunodeficiencies that are most frequently associated with lymphocytopenia in order to provide a resource that will help non-immunological clinicians to recognize and appropriately refer to these cases. Materials and Methods: Review of the literature with scientific articles indexed in English and Spanish. We consulted Pubmed database with the keywords: primary immunodeficiencies and severe combined immu-nodeficiencies. The limit of time was 5 years and only review papers. Re-sults: The search in the database results in 68 papers and we analyzed 35 articles because the objective of the review was Severe Combined Immu-nodeficiencies. Discussion: Persistent lymphopenia (usually <2500 xmm3) detected in blood cell cytometry that accompanies severe, recurrent infec-tions, autoimmune manifestations, atopy and cancer may suggest severe combined immunodeficiency. Causes of secondary immunodeficiency such as HIV should be ruled out. Conclusions: Persistent lymphopenia can be associated with severe combined immunodeficiency. The study should be extended in these cases by a specialist or refer the patient to a referral center for a complete evaluation.

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Alberto, G. C. , Emmanuel, A. , Alberto, Y. M. , Daniel, A. C. , Fernando, L. , Eugenia, V. M. , Elva, E. S. , Edith, G. M. and Isabel, C. M. (2019). Approach to Primary Immunodeficiencies for the Non-Immunologist Physicians. Open Access Library Journal, 6, e5419. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1105419.

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