All Title Author
Keywords Abstract

Publish in OALib Journal
ISSN: 2333-9721
APC: Only $99

ViewsDownloads

Records of Southern Sea Lion (Otaria flavescens) (Mammalia: Carnivora: Otariidae) and Total Mercury (THg) Levels in Muscle Tissue of a Specimen on the East Coast of Rio de Janeiro State, Southeastern Brazil

DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105290, PP. 1-14

Subject Areas: Zoology, Animal Behavior

Keywords: Records, Mercury, Southern Sea Lion

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib

Abstract

This study aims to present records of southern sea lions (Otaria flavescens) on the coast of Arraial do Cabo, located on the east coast of Rio de Janeiro State, southeastern Brazil, and information on the levels of total mercury (THg) found in muscle tissue of a specimen collected in the study area. Between July 2003 and February 2017, 5 occurrences of southern sea lions were recorded in the study area. Four of these records were of live animals, while one was of a carcass in advanced state of decomposition. In relation to the concentrations of THg found in the muscle tissue of the analyzed individual, they ranged from 0.047 to 0.067 mg/kg, with a mean value found of 0.057 mg/kg, a standard deviation of 0.010 and a coefficient of variation of 17.5%.

Cite this paper

Rodrigues, M. T. , Netto, E. B. F. , Cumplido, R. , Junior, U. G. D. M. , Quintanilha, D. B. , Mársico, E. T. , Ascoli, M. D. S. F. and Guimaraes, C. F. M. (2019). Records of Southern Sea Lion (Otaria flavescens) (Mammalia: Carnivora: Otariidae) and Total Mercury (THg) Levels in Muscle Tissue of a Specimen on the East Coast of Rio de Janeiro State, Southeastern Brazil. Open Access Library Journal, 6, e5290. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1105290.

References

[1]  Jefferson, T.A., Leatherwood, S. and Webber, M.A. (1993) FAO Species Identification Guide: Marine Mammals of the World. United Nations (UN), Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), Rome, 328 p.
[2]  Monteiro-Filho, E.L.A., Oliveira, L.V., Monteiro, K.D.K.A., Filla, G.F., Quito, L. and Godoy, D.F. (2013) Guia Ilustrado de Mamíferos Marinhos do Brasil. Instituto de Pesquisas Cananéia (IPeC), Projeto Boto-cinza, Sao Paulo, 108 p.
[3]  Gerpe, M., Rodríguez, D., Moreno, V., Bastida, R. and Aizpún, J. (2007) Cooper, Zinc, Cadmium, and Mercury in Southern Sea Lions (Otaria flavescens) from Argentina. Aquatic Mammals, 33, 223-228.
https://doi.org/10.1578/AM.33.2.2007.223
[4]  Bustos, R.L., Daneri, G.A., Volpedo, A.V., Harrington, A. and Varela, E.A. (2012) The Diet of the South American Sea Lion (Otaria flavescens) at Río Negro, Patagonia, Argentina, during the Winter-Spring Period. Iheringia (Série Zoologia), 102, 394-400. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0073-47212012000400005
[5]  Vaz-Ferreira, R. (1982a) Otaria flavescens (Shaw), South American Sea Lion. In: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), Mammals in the Seas: Small Cetaceans, Seals, Sirenians and Otters, United Nations (UN), Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), FAO Fisheries Series, United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), Rome, 5, 477-495.
[6]  Mora-Pinto, D.M., Munoz-Hincapié, M.F., Mignucci-Giannoni, A.A. and Acero-Pizarro (1995) Marine Mammal Mortality and Strandings along the Pacific Coast of Colombia. Reports of International Whaling Commission, 45, 427-429.
[7]  Capella, J.J., Flórez-González, L., Falk-Fernández, P. and Palacios, D.M. (2002) Regular Appearance of Otariid Pinnipeds along the Colombian Pacific Coast. Aquatic Mammals, 28, 67-72.
[8]  Wellington, G.M. and de Vries, T.J. (1976) The South American Sea Lion, Otaria byronia, in the Galapagos Islands. Journal of Mammalogy, 57, 166-167.
https://doi.org/10.2307/1379520
[9]  Mendez, E. and Rodriguez, B. (1984) A Southern Sea Lion, Otaria flavescens (Shaw) Found in Panama. Caribbean Journal of Science, 20, 105-108.
[10]  Rosas, F.C.W., Pinedo, M.C., Marmontel, M. and Haimovici, M. (1994) Seasonal Movements of the South American Sea Lion (Otaria flavescens, Shaw) off the Rio Grande do Sul Coast, Brazil. Mammalia, 58, 51-59.
https://doi.org/10.1515/mamm.1994.58.1.51
[11]  Oliveira, L.R., Danilewicz, D., Marins, M.B., Moreno, M.B.I. and Caon, G. (1999) Patterns of Occurrence of Pinnipeds along the Southern Brazilian Coast. 13th Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals, Wailea, 8 November-3 December 1999, 139.
[12]  Pinedo, M.C. (1990) Ocorrência de pinípedes na costa brasileira. Garcia de Orta, 15, 37-48.
[13]  Simoes-Lopes, P.C., Drehmer, C.J. and Ott, P.H. (1995) Nota sobre os Otariidae e Phocidae (Mammalia: Carnivora) da costa norte do Rio Grande do Sul e Santa Catarina, Brasil. Biociências, 3, 173-181.
[14]  Oliveira, L.R., Arias-Schreiber, M., Meyer, D. and Morgante, J.S. (2006) Effective Population Size in a Bottlenecked fur Seal Population. Biological Conservation, 131, 505-509. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2006.02.017
[15]  Rocha-Campos, C.C. and Camara, I.G. (2011) Plano de Acao Nacional para Conservacao dos Mamíferos Aquáticos: Grandes Cetáceos e Pinípedes. Série Espécies Ameacadas No. 14, Ministério do Meio Ambiente (MMA), Instituto Chico Mendes de Conservacao da Biodiversidade (ICMBio), Brasília, 156 p.
[16]  Gliesh, R. (1925) A fauna de Torres. Revista de Engenharia de Porto Alegre, 10, 253-354.
[17]  Vaz-Ferreira, R. (1982b) Arctocephalus australis (Zimmerman), South American Fur Seal. In: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), Mammals in the Seas: Small Cetaceans, Seals, Sirenians and Otters, United Nations (UN), Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), FAO Fisheries Series, United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), Rome, Vol. 5, 497-508.
[18]  Rosas, F.C.W. (1989) Aspectos da dinamica populacional e interacoes com a pesca do leao-marinho-do-sul, Otaria flavescens (Shaw, 1800) (Pinnipedia, Otariidae) no litoral sul do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. MSc Dissertation, Fundacao Universidade Federal do Rio Grande (FURG), Rio Grande, 88 p.
[19]  Silva, K.G., Estima, S.C., Barbosa-Filho, R.B. and Monteiro, D.S. (2002) Status de conservacao dos pinípedes no litoral do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, em 2000 e 2001. 10a Reunión de Trabajo de Especialistas en Mamíferos Acuáticos de América del Sur (RT) y 4? Congreso de la Sociedad Latinoamericana de Especialistas en Mamíferos Acuáticos (SOLAMAC), Valdivia, 115-116.
[20]  Carvalho, C.T. (1975) Ocorrência de mamíferos marinhos no Brasil. Boletim Técnico do Instituto Florestal, 16, 13-32.
[21]  Moura, J.F., Di Dario, B.P. and Siciliano, S. (2011) Occurrence of Pinnipeds on the Coast of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Marine Biodiversity Records, 4, 1-10.
https://doi.org/10.1017/S1755267211000030
[22]  Castello, H.P. (1984) Registros del elefante marino, Mirounga leonina (Carnivora, Phocidae), en las costas del Atlantico sur occidental fuera del area de cria. Revista del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales, 24, 235-243.
[23]  Souza, A.B.S. (2007) O incremento dos servicos de recreacao e lazer nos meios de hospedagens como possibilidade de melhor desempenho turístico do município de Arraial do Cabo RJ. Graduation monograph, Instituto de Ciências Sociais Aplicadas, Universidade Veiga de Almeida (UVA), Cabo Frio, 86 p.
[24]  Araujo, D.S.D. (2000) Análise florística e fitogeográfica das restingas do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. PhD Thesis, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, 176 p.
[25]  Valentin, J.L. (1994) A ressurgência—Fonte de vida dos oceanos. Ciência Hoje, 18, 18-25.
[26]  Valentin, J.L. (2001) The Cabo Frio Upwelling System, Brazil. In: Seeliger, U. and Kjerfve, B., Eds., Coastal Marine Ecosystems of Latin America, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 97-105. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-04482-7_8
[27]  Silva, G.L., Dourado, M.S. and Candella, R.N. (2006) Estudo preliminar da climatologia da ressurgência na regiao de Arraial do Cabo, RJ. 14th Congresso Brasileiro de Meteorologia, Florianópolis, 27 November-1 December 2006, 1-11.
[28]  Silva, P.P. (2004) From Common Property to Co-Management: Lessons from Brazil’s First Maritime Extractive Reserve. Marine Policy, 28, 419-428.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2003.10.017
[29]  IBAMA (2007) Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renováveis. áreas protegidas do Brasil 4: áreas aquáticas protegidas como instrumento de gestao pesqueira. Ministério do Meio Ambiente (MMA), Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renováveis (IBAMA), Secretaria de Biodiversidade e Florestas, Núcleo da Zona Costeira e Marinha, Brasília, 261 p.
[30]  Seixas, C.S. (2008) Co-Managing a Complex Commons: The Case of a Marine Protected Area Established along a Coastal Urban Setting in Brazil. 12th Biennial Conference of the International Association for the Study of Commons—Governing Shared Resources: Connecting Lo-cal Experience to Global Challenges, Cheltenham, 14-18 July 2008, 1-21.
[31]  Tao, G., Willie, S.N. and Sturgeon, R.E. (1999) Determination of Inorganic Mercury in Biological Tissues by Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrometry Following Tetramethylammonium Hydroxide Solubilization. Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, 14, 1929-1931. https://doi.org/10.1039/a906313g
[32]  Torres, D.P., Vieira, M.A., Ribeiro, A.S. and Curtius, A.J. (2005) Determination of Inorganic and Total Mercury in Biological Samples Treated with Tetramethylammonium Hydroxide by Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrometry Using Different Temperatures in the Quartz Cell. Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, 20, 289-294. https://doi.org/10.1039/b416167j
[33]  Torres, D.P. (2013) Mercúrio: Validacao de metodo para determinacao em peixe e camarao e avaliacao da sua distribuicao em tecidos de caranguejos e efeito da presenca de selênio. PhD Thesis, Instituto de Química, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, 94 p.
[34]  Krug, F.J., Nóbrega, J.A. and Oliveira, P.V. (2004) Espectrometria de Absorcao Atomica—Parte 1: Fundamentos e atomizacao com chama. Apostila, Sao Paulo, 40 p.
[35]  Coquery, M., Azemard, S. and de Mora, S.J. (2000) Report on the World-Wide Intercomparison Exercise for the Determination of Trace Elements and Methylmercury in Estuarine Sediment Sample IAEA-405. Report No. IAEA/AL/127 and IAEA/MEL/70, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Marine Environment Laboratory (MEL), Monaco, 113 p.
[36]  Wyse, E.J., Azemard, S. and de Mora, S.J. (2004) Report on the World-Wide Intercomparison Exercise for the Determination of Trace Elements and Methylmercury in Estuarine Sediment Sample IAEA-433. Report No. IAEA/AL/147 and IAEA/MEL/75, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Marine Environment Laboratory (MEL), Monaco, 117 p.
[37]  Bustamante, P., Garrigue, C., Breau, L., Caurant, F., Dabin, W., Greaves, J. and Dodemont, R. (2003) Trace Elements in Two Odontocete Species (Kogia breviceps and Globicephala macrorhynchus) Stranded in New Caledonia (South Pacific). Environmental Pollution, 124, 263-271.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0269-7491(02)00480-3
[38]  Branco, V., Canario, J., Vale, C., Raimundo, J. and Reis, C. (2004) Total and Organic Mercury Concentrations in Muscle Tissue of the Blue Shark (Prionace glauca L.1758) from the Northeast Atlantic. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 49, 871-874.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2004.09.002
[39]  Carvalho, G.G.A. (2007) Determinacao de mercúrio total e inorganico em tecidos biológicos atraves de injecao em fluxo acoplado à espectrometria de fluorescência at?mica (FI-AFS). 5a Mostra Acadêmica UNIMEP—Educacao Brasileira: Extincao ou Sustentabilidade na Universidade e 15? Congresso de Iniciacao Científica UNIMEP, Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Piracicaba, 1-6.
[40]  NRCC (2013) DORM-4: Fish Protein Certified Reference Material for Trace Metals. National Research Council of Canada, Certified Reference Materials (CRMs) for Trace Metals in Biological Tissues.
https://www.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/eng/solutions/advisory/crm/certificates/dorm_4.html
[41]  King, J.E. (1983) Seals of the World. 2nd Edition. British Museum (Natural History) and Cornell University Press, London, 240 p.
[42]  Bastida, R. and Rodríguez, D. (2003) Mamíferos Marinos de Patagonia y Antártida. Vazquez Mazzini, Buenos Aires, 366 p.
[43]  Paez, H. (2006) Situación de la administración del recurso lobos y leones marinos en Uruguay. In: Menafra, R., Gallgo, L.R., Scarabina, F. and Conde, D., Eds., Bases para la conservación y el manejo de la costa uruguaya, Vida Silvestre, Montevideo, 577-584.
[44]  Castello, H.P. and Pinedo, M.C. (1977) Os visitantes ocasionais de nosso litoral. Natureza em Revista, 3, 40-46.
[45]  Pinedo, M.C. and Barros, N. (1983) Análise dos conteúdos estomacais do leao marinho Otaria flavescens e do lobo-marinho Arctocephalus australis na costa do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Simpósio Latinoamericano sobre Oceanografia Biológica, Montevideo, 25.
[46]  Oliveira, L.R., Ott, P.H. and Malabarba, L.R. (2008) Ecologia alimentar dos pinípedes do sul do Brasil e uma avaliacao de suas interacoes com atividades pesqueiras. In: Reis, N.R., Peracchi, A.L. and Santos, G.A.S.D., Eds., Ecologia de mamiferos, Technical Books Editora, Rio de Janeiro, 93-109.
[47]  Law, R.J. (1996) Metals in Marine Mammals. In: Beyer, W.N., Heinz, G.H. and Redmon-Norwood, A.W., Eds., Environmental Contaminants in Wildlife: Interpreting Tissue Concentrations, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 357-376.
[48]  Gerpe, M.S., Rodriguez, D.H., Moreno, V.J., Bastida, R.O. and Aizpún de Moreno, J.E. (2002) Accumulation of Heavy Metals in the Franciscana (Pontoporia blainvillei) from Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. Latin American Journal of Aquatic Mammals, 1, 95-106. https://doi.org/10.5597/lajam00013
[49]  Zhang, X., Naidu, S.A., Jewett, J.J., Dasher, S.C. and Duffy, L.K. (2001) Baseline Concentrations of Total Mercury and Methylmercury in Salmon Returning via Bering Sea (1999-2000). Marine Pollution Bulletin, 42, 993-997.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0025-326X(01)00200-4
[50]  Jewett, S.C., Zhang, X., Naidu, A.S., Kelly, J.J., Dasher, D. and Duffy, L.K. (2003) Comparison of Mercury and Methylmercury in Northern Pike and Arctic Grayling from Western Alaska Rivers. Chemosphere, 50, 383-392.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0045-6535(02)00421-6
[51]  Pena, N.I., Moreno, V.J., Marcovecchio, J.E. and Perez, A. (1988) Total Mercury, Cadmium and Lead Distribution in Tissues of the Southern Sea Lion (Otaria flavescens) in the Ecosystem of Mar Del Plata, Argentina. In: Seelinger, U., Lacerda, L.D. and Patchineelam, S.R. Eds., Metals in Coastal Environments of Latin America, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 140-146.
[52]  Gerpe, M.S. (1996) Distribución y dinámica de metales pesados en mamiferos marinos. PhD Thesis, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Mar del Plata, 342 p.
[53]  Rivero, L., Bastida, R., Rodriguez, D. and Westergaard, G, (1999) Southern Sea Lion Feeding Habits in Puerto Quequen, Argentina. 8th Congreso Latinoamericano de Ciencias del Mar, 1, 265-266.
[54]  Koen Alonso, M., Crespo, E.A., Pedraza, S.N., Garcia, N.A. and Coscarella, M.A. (2000) Food Habits of the South American Sea Lion, Otaria flavescens, off Patagonia, Argentina. Fishery Bulletin, 98, 250-263.
[55]  Naya, D.E., Vargas, R. and Arim, M. (2000) Análisis preliminar del león marino del sur (Otaria flavescens) em Isla de Lobos, Uruguay. Boletin de La Sociedad Zoológica del Uruguay, 12, 14-21.

Full-Text


comments powered by Disqus

Contact Us

service@oalib.com

QQ:3279437679

微信:OALib Journal