Background: Risk of harm associated with wind turbines is debated globally. Some people living or working in proximity to wind turbines report adverse health effects such as sleep disturbance, noise annoyance, and diminished quality of life. Due to public concern, Health Canada announced its wind turbine noise and health study which included subjective and objective measurements. Findings were published between 2014 and 2016. In 2018, Health Canada published clarifications regarding the design and interpretation of study conclusions.
Methods: Methods and subjective/objective findings were reviewed. Peer reviewed publications, conference presentations, judicial proceedings, government documents, and other sources were evaluated and considered in context with advanced methods for investigating reports of adverse health effects.
Objectives: To review and explore some of the research challenges, methods, strengths and limitations of findings and conclusions. To participate in scientific dialogue and contribute towards an understanding of reported health risks associated with wind turbine noise.
Results: Wind turbine human health research is challenged by numerous variables. Knowledge gaps and individual human and wind turbine variables are identified. Strengths and advisories of limitations are considered and acknowledged. Health Canada’s advisories that its study design does not permit any conclusions about causality and results may not be generalized beyond the sample taken in Canada are supported. Enhanced methods for investigating health outcomes are proposed including establishing referral resources within medical facilities for physicians. It is proposed staffing of the resource center include multidisciplinary teams of physicians, epidemiologists, acousticians and other specialists to investigate suspected wind turbine adverse health effects.
Discussion: A review and appraisal of some of the research challenges associated with wind turbine human health research are presented. Given the identified methods, research/knowledge gaps, and limitations and cautionary advisories, Health Canada’s results should be carefully considered when predicting or protecting from health risks of wind turbine noise.
Cite this paper
Krogh, C. M. , Dumbrille, A. , McMurtry, R. Y. , James, R. , Rand, R. W. , Nissenbaum, M. A. , Aramini, J. J. and Ambrose, S. E. (2018). Health Canada’s Wind Turbine Noise and Health Study—A Review Exploring Research Challenges, Methods, Limitations and Uncertainties of Some of the Findings. Open Access Library Journal, 5, e5046. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1105046.
CCA (2015) Council of Canadian Academies. Understanding the Evidence. The Expert Panel on Wind Turbine Noise and Human Health, Table 7.1. https://www.scienceadvice.ca/reports/understand ing-the-evidence-wind-turbine-noise/
Onakpoya, I.J., O’Sullivan, J., Thompson, M.J. and Heneghana, C.J. (2015) The Effect of Wind Turbine Noise on Sleep and Quality of Life: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies. Environment International, 82, 1-9. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S 0160412015001051 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envi nt.2015.04.014
Jeffery, R.D., Krogh, C. and Horner, B. (2013) (Commentary) Adverse Health Effects of Industrial Wind Turbines. Canadian Family Physician, 59, 473-475. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3653647/
Colby, W., Dobie, R., Leventhall, G., Lipscomb, D., McCunney, R., Seilo, M. and Sondergaard, B. (2009) Wind Turbine Sound and Health Effects: An Expert Panel Review. Pre-pared for American Wind Energy Association and Canadian Wind Energy Association.
Freiberg, A., Schefter, C., Girbig, M., Murta, V.C. and Seidler (2018) Health Effects of Wind Turbines in Working Environments: A Scoping Review. Scandinavian Journal of Work Environment & Health, 44, 351-369. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Healt h effects of wind turbines in working environ ments %E2%80%93 a scoping review
Kageyama, T., Yano, T., Kuwano, S., Sueoka, S. and Tachibana, H. (2016) Exposure-Response Relationship of Wind Turbine Noise with Self-Reported Symptoms of Sleep and Health Problems: A Nationwide Socioacoustic Survey in Japan. Noise & Health, 18, 53-61. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26960782 https://doi.org/10.4103/1463-1741.178478
Havas, M. and Colling, D. (2011) Wind Turbines Make Waves: Why Some Residents near Wind Turbines Become Ill. Bulletin of Science Technology & Society, 31, 414. http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/ 0270467611417852 https://doi.org/10.1177/0270467611417852
Krogh, C.M.E., Gillis, L., Kouwen, N. and Aramini, J. (2011) WindVOiCe, a Self-Reporting Survey: Adverse Health Effects, Industrial Wind Turbines, and the Need for Vigilance Monitor-ing. Bulletin of Science Technology & Society, 31, 334. http://bst.sagepub.com/content/31/4/334 https://doi.org/10.1177/0270467611412551
Jeffery, R.D., Krogh, M.E. and Horner, B. (2014) (Review) Industrial Wind Turbines and Adverse Health Effects. Canadian Journal of Rural Medicine, 19, 21-26. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24398354
Krogh, C.M.E. (2011) Industrial Wind Turbine Development and Loss of Social Justice? Bulletin of Science Technology & Society, 31, 321. http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/ 0270467611412550 https://doi.org/10.1177/ 0270467611412550
Ripley Group. Legislative Assembly of Ontario First Session, 39th Parliament. Official Report Journal of Debates (Hansard), Wednesday 15 April 2009. Standing Committee on Green Energy and Green Economy Act, 2009. David Orazietti, Chair, P. G-547. https://www.ola.org/en/legislative-business/committ ees/general-government/parliament-39/transcripts/c ommittee-transcript-2009-apr-15#P1296_397237
Rand, R.W., Am-brose, S.E. and Krogh, C.M.E. (2011) Occupational Health and Industrial Wind Turbines: A Case Study. Bulletin of Science Technology & Society, 31, 359. https://doi.org/10.1177/0270467611417849 http://bst.sagepub.com/content/31/5/359
Swinbanks, M. (2015) Direct Experience of Low-Frequency Noise and Infrasound within a Windfarm Community. 6th International Meeting on Wind Turbine Noise, Glasgow, 20-23 April 2015. https://www.wind-watch.org/documents/direct-expe rience-of-low-frequency-noise-and-infrasound-withi n-a-windfarm-community/
Abbasi, M., Monazzam, M.R., Ebrahim, M.H., Zakerian, S.A., Dehghan, S.F. and Akbarzadeh, A. (2016) Assessment of Noise Effects of Wind Turbine on the General Health of Staff at Wind Farm of Manjil, Iran. Journal of Low Frequency Noise, Vibration and Active Control, 35, 91-98. http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/ 0263092316628714 https://doi.org/10.1177/0263092316628714
Abbasi, M., Monazzam, M.R., Akbarzadeh, A., Zakerian, S.A. and Ebrahim, M.H. (2015) Impact of Wind Turbine Sound on General Health, Sleep Disturbance and Annoyance of Workers: A Pilot-Study in Manji Wind Farm, Iran. Journal of Environmental Health Science & Engineering, 13, 71. https://jehse.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/ s40201-015-0225-8 https://doi.org/10.1186/s40201-015-0225-8
Abbasi, M., Monnazzam, M.R., Zakerian, S.A. and Yousefzadeh, A. (2015) Effect of Wind Turbine Noise on Workers’ Sleep Disorder: A Case Study of Manjil Wind Farm in Northern Iran. Fluctuation and Noise Letters, 14, Article ID: 1550020. https://www.worldscientific.com/doi/abs/10.1142/ S0219477515500200 https://doi.org/10.1142/S0219477515500200
Inagaki, T., Li, Y. and Nishi, Y. (2015) Analysis of Aerodynamic Sound Noise Generated by a Large Scaled Wind Turbine and Its Physiological Evaluation. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 12, 1933-1944. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs 13762-014-0581-4 https://doi.org/10.1007/s13762-014-0581-4
Nissenbaum, M.A., Aramini, J.J. and Hanning, C.D. (2012) Effects of Industrial Wind Turbine Noise on Sleep and Health. Noise & Health, 14, 237-243. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Effects of industrial wind turbine noise on sleep and health https://doi.org/10.4103/1463-1741.102961
Michaud, D.S., Keith, S.E., Feder, K., Soukhovtsev, V., Marro, L., Denning, A., et al. (2013) Self-Reported and Objectively Measured Health Indicators among a Sample of Canadians Living within the Vicinity of Industrial Wind Turbines: Social Survey and Sound Level Modelling Methodology. Noise News International, 21, 122-131. https://docs.wind-watch.org/NNI_2013_Dec_HC- methodology.pdf https://doi.org/10.3397/1.37023117
Health Canada. Environmental & Workplace Health (July 10, 2012) Notice to Stakeholders—Health Canada Wind Turbine Noise and Health Study. https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/services/ environmental-workplace-health/consultations/notice- stakeholders -health-canada-wind-turbine-noise-health-study-2012-he alth-canada-consultation.html
Michaud, D.S., Feder, K., Keith, S.E., Voicescu, S.A., Marro, L., Than, J., et al. (2016) Exposure to Wind Turbine Noise: Perceptual Responses and Reported Health Effects. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 139, 1443-1454. https://asa.scitation.org/doi/10.1121/1.4942391 https://doi.org/10.1121/1.4942391
Health Canada. Environmental and Workplace Health (November 6, 2014) Wind Turbine Noise and Health Study: Summary of Results. https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/services/ environmental-workplace-health/noise/wind-turbine -noise/wind-tur bine-noise-health-study-summary-results.html
Keith, S.E., Feder, K., Voicescu, S.A., Soukhovtsev, V., Allison, D., Tsang, J., et al. (2016) Wind Turbine Sound Power Measurements. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 139, 1431-1435. https://asa.scitation.org/doi/full/10.1121/1.4942405 https://doi.org/10.1121/1.4942405
Keith, S.E., Feder, K., Voicescu, S.A., Soukhovtsev, V., Allison, D., Tsang, J., et al. (2016) Wind Turbine Sound Pressure Level Calculations at Dwellings. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 139, 1436-1442. https://asa.scitation.org/doi/abs/10.1121/1.4942404 https://doi.org/10.1121/1.4942404
Michaud, D.S., Feder, K., Keith, S.E., Voicescu, S.A., et al. (2016) Self-Reported and Measured Stress Related Responses Associated with Exposure to Wind Turbine Noise. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 139, 1467-1479. https://asa.scitation.org/doi/abs/10.1121/1.4942402 https://doi.org/10.1121/1.4942402
Michaud, D.S., Keith, S.E., Feder, K., Voicescu, S.A., Marro, L., Than, J., et al. (2016) Personal and Situational Variables Associated with Wind Turbine Noise Annoyance. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 139, 1455-1466. https://asa.scitation.org/doi/abs/10.1121/1.4942390 https://doi.org/10.1121/1.4942390
Voicescu, S.A., Michaud, D.S., Feder, K., Marro, L., Than, J., Guay, M., et al. (2016) Estimating Annoyance to Calculated Wind Turbine Shadow Flicker Is Improved When Variables Associated with Wind Turbine Noise Exposure Are Considered. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 139, 1480-1492. https://asa.scitation.org/doi/abs/10.1121/1.4942403 https://doi.org/10.1121/1.4942403
Feder, K., Michaud, D.S., Keith, S.E., Voicescu, S.A., Marro, L., Than, J., et al. (2015) An Assessment of Quality of Life Using the WHOQOL-BREF among Participants Living in the Vicinity of Wind Tur-bines. Environmental Research, 142, 227-238. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/ S0013935115300189 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2015.06.043
Michaud, D.S., Feder, K., Voicescu, S.A., Marro, L., Than, J., Guay, M., Lavigne, E., et al. (2018) Clarifications on the Design and Interpretation of Conclusions from Health Canada’s Study on Wind Turbine Noise and Health. Acoustics Australia, 46, 99-110. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1 007%2Fs40857-017-0125-4 https://doi.org/10.1007/s40857-017-0125-4
Michaud, D.S., Feder, K., Keith, S.E., Voicescu, S.A., Marro, L., Than, J., Guay, M., Denning, A., et al. (2018) Corrigendum: Effects of Wind Turbine Noise on Self-Reported and Objective Measures of Sleep. Sleep, 41, zsy037. https://academic.oup.com/sleep/article/ 41/5/zsy037/4954221 https://doi.org/10.1093/sleep/zsy037
Michaud, D.S., Feder, K., Keith, S.E., Voicescu, S.A., et al. (2016) Erratum: Exposure to Wind Turbine Noise: Perceptual Responses and Reported Health Effects [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 139(3), 1443-1454 (2016)]. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 139, 2457. https://asa.scitation.org/doi/10.1121/1.4964754
Michaud, D.S., Keith, S.E., Feder, K., Voicescu, S.A., et al. (2016) Erratum: Personal and Situational Variables Associated with Wind Turbine Noise Annoyance [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 139(3), 1455-1466 (2016)]. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 140, 2234. https://doi.org/10.1121/1.4963838
Health Canada. Environmental & Workplace Health (2013) Consultations. Health Impacts and Exposure to Sound from Wind Turbines: Updated Research Design and Sound Exposure Assessment. https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/services/ environmental-workplace-health/consultations/health-impacts- exposure-sound-wind-turbines-updated-research-design-s ound-exposure-assessment.html
Jasper County Planning & Development (September 21, 2018) Review of Proposed Revisions to the Jasper County Zoning Ordinance Section 20.30.170 WFO District Development Standards. Rensselaer, Indiana, USA.
AUC (Alberta Utilities Commission November 22, 2017) AUC 22563, Volume 2. Proceeding ID No. 22563. Capital Power’s Request for Approval to Construct and Operate a 148-Megawatt Wind Power Plant and a 240-Kv Substation to be called Goldeye 620s Substation, Collectively Designated as Halkirk 2 Wind Power Project In the County of Paintearth. November 22, 2017, Red Deer, Alberta. Testimony by C. Ollson (For Capital Power Corporation), previously sworn/affirmed.
Brown County Human Services Commission. Brown County Special Event (September 12, 2017). Wisconsin, USA. Presentation by Dr. Robert McCunney. http://bccrwe.com/27 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2kvoZ O-DEho&feature=youtu.be
State of New York Department of Public Service (July 20, 2017) In the Matter of: Case 14-F-0490, Application by Cassadaga Wind LLC for a Certificate of Environmental Compatibility and Public Need Pursuant to Article 10 of the New York State Public Service Law for the Cassadaga Wind Project, Towns of Charlotte, Cherry Creek, Arkwright, and Stockton, Chautauqua County. Evidentiary Hear-ing—14-F-0490-7-20-2017. Thursday July 20, 2017. Sinclairville, New York. Dakin P. Lecakes, DPS, Administrative Law Judge and P. Nicolas Garlick, DEC Administrative Law Judge. Sworn testimony of Dr. Robert McCunney.
Commonwealth of Massachusetts Superior Court (2016) Case No. 1472CV0003. Vol. 5. Barnstable, ss. Superior Court. Town of Falmouth, Plaintiff, vs. Town of Falmouth Zoning Board of Appeals, and Matthew Mcnamara, Patricia Johnson, Kenneth Foreman, Edwin Zylinski, David Haddad and Mark Cool as members of the Falmouth Zoning Board of Appeals; and Barry Funfar and Diane Funfar, Defendants. Before the Honorable Cornelius J. Moriarty II, Associate Justice of the Superior Court (November 23, 2016) Barnstable, Massachusetts Vol 5. p. 16 l. 20. Sworn testimony by Dr Robert McCunney.
State of Vermont Public Utility Commission (December 2, 2016) Sworn Testimony by Christopher Ollson, PhD. Ollson Environmental Health Management. Addressing Wind Turbine Health Concerns. http://puc.vermont.gov/sites/psbnew/files/doc _library/rulemaking-5700-dps-oehm-presentation-12-2-16.pdf
ERT (Environmental Review Tribunal May 11, 2015) Ontario, Canada. Proceeding Commenced under Section 142.1(2) of the Environmental Protection Act, R.S.O. 1990, c.E.19, as amended Douglas Edward Dingeldein v Director, Ministry of the Environment and Climate Change. Case No. 15-011. Subject of appeal: Renewable Energy Approval for Grey Highlands Zero Emission People Wind Farm. Sworn testimony by Dr Robert McCunney.
Superior Court of Justice Divisional Court-Ontario (2014) Dixon v. Director, Ministry of the Environment, 2014 ONSC 7404 Divisional Court Files Nos.: 2055/14, 2056/14 and 2073/14. Date: 20141229 Marrocco A.C.J.S.C., J. Henderson and D. Brown JJ. Court File No. 2055/14, between: Scotty Dixon, Jennifer Dixon, Thomas Ryan and Catherine Ryan Appellants and the Director, Ministry of the Environment and St. Columban Energy LP Respondents. Court File No. 2056/14 and between: Shawn Drennan and Tricia Drennan Appellants and The Director, Ministry of the Environment and K2 Wind Ontario Inc., operating as K2 Wind Ontario Limited Partnership Respondents, Court File No. 2073/14 and between: Kenneth George Kroeplin and Sharon Anne Kroeplin Appellants and The Director, Ministry of the Environment and SP Armow Wind Ontario GP Inc. as general partner for and on behalf of SP Armow Wind Ontario LP Respondents. Heard at London: November 17, 18, 19 and 20, 2014.
MG Acoustics (February, 2014) Analysis, Modeling, and Prediction of Infrasound and Low Frequency Noise from Wind Turbine Installation. Phase 1: PEI Site Final Report. https://docs.wind-watch.org/WT-ILFN-Pha se-1-PE-Final-Report-Redacted.pdf
MG Acoustics (February, 2014) Analysis, Modeling, and Prediction of Infrasound and Low Frequency Noise from Wind Turbine Installation. Phase 2: Southern Ontario Site. Final Report. https://docs.wind-watch.org/WT-ILFN-Phas e-2-ON-Final-Report-Redacted.pdf
Barlas, E., Zhu, W.J., Shen, W.Z. and Andersen, S.J. (2016) Wind Turbine Noise Propagation Modelling: An Unsteady Approach. The Science of Making Torque from Wind, (TORQUE 2016) IOP Publishing. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 753, Article ID: 022003. http://orbit.dtu.dk/files/127151921/Wind_turbi ne_noise_propagation_modelling.pdf
Schmidt, J.H. and Klokker, M. (2014) Health Effects Related to Wind Turbine Noise Exposure: A Systematic Review. PLoS ONE, 9, e114183. https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id =10.1371/journal.pone.0114183 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0114183
Gortsasa, T.V., Triantafyllidis, T., Chrisopoulosa, S. and Polyzosb, D. (2017) Numerical Modelling of Micro-Seismic and Infrasound Noise Radiated by a Wind Turbine. Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 99, 108-123. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/ pii/S026772611730297X https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soildyn.2017.05.001
AAT, Administrative Appeals Tribunal (December 4, 2017) Waubra Foundation vs ACNC. Decision & Reasons, Summary of the Effect of the Medical and Scientific Evidence. https://waubrafoundation.org.au/wp-content/u ploads/2017/12/Decision-4-Dec-17.pdf
Michaud DS (May 26, 2016) An Evaluation of How Nightly Variations in Wind Turbine Noise Levels Influence Wrist Actigraphy Measured Sleep Patterns. Abstract. 171st Meeting of the Acoustical Society of America, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA.
Michaud, D.S. (May 25, 2016) An Evaluation of How Nightly Variations in Wind Turbine Noise Levels Influence Wrist Actigraphy Measured Sleep Patterns. Slide Presentation. 171st Meeting of the Acoustical Society of America, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA.
Bray, W. and James, R. (2011) Dynamic Measurements of Wind Turbine Acoustic Signals, Employing Sound Quality Engineering Methods Considering the Time and Frequency Sensitivities of Human Perception. NOISE-CON 2011, Portland, Oregon, USA, 25-27 July 2011. https://docs.wind-watch.org/Bray-James-11-07-25 -Dynamic-measurement-of-wind-turbine-noise.pdf
B. Walker, George, F., Hessler, D.M., Rand, R. and Schomer, P. (2012) A Cooperative Measurement Survey and Analysis of Low Frequency and Infrasound at the Shirley Wind Farm in Brown County, Wisconsin. Report Number 122412-1 (Issued: December 24, 2012). Cooperative Measurement Survey. https://puc.sd.gov/commission/dockets/electric/20 18/EL18-003/testimony/testimony/mogen/Noi se%20Exhibit%204.pdf
Persson Waye, K., Clow, A., Edwards, S., Hucklebridge, F. and Rylandera, R. (2003) Effects of Nighttime Low Frequency Noise on the Cortisol Response to Awakening and Subjective Sleep Quality. Life Sciences, 72, 863-875. http://docs.wind-watch.org/Persson-Waye-LFN-cortisol-2002.pdf https://doi.org/10.1016/S0024-3205(02)02336-6
Karlan, J.L., Frostell, A., Theodorsson, E. and Faresjo, T. (2011) Cortisol in Hair Measured in Young Adults—A Biomarker of Major Life Stressors? BMC Clinical Pathology, 11, 12.
Sauvé, B., Koren, G., Walsh, G., Tokmakejian, S. and Van Uum, S.H. (2007) Measurement of Cortisol in Human Hair as a Biomarker of Systemic Exposure. Clinical and Investigative Medicine, 30, E183-E191. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/5951333_ Measurement_of_cortisol_in_human_Hair_as_a_bio marker_of_systemic_exposure
Albar, W.F., Russell, E.W., Koren, G., Rieder, M.J. and van Umm, S.H. (2013) Human Hair Cortisol Analysis: Comparison of the Internationally-Reported ELISA Methods. Clinical and Investigative Medicine, 36, E312-E316. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24309228
Pieterson, B., Bower, T. and Michaud, D. (February 12, 2012) Health Canada’s Policy and Research Approach to Wind Turbines. Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada. Science Advisory Board (SAB) Meeting Proceedings. https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/services/s cience-research/reports-publications/science-advice -decision-making/science-advisory-board-meeting-february-1-2-2012.html
Lee, D.Y., Kim, I.E. and Choi, M.H. (2015) Technical and Clinical Aspects of Cortisol as a Biochemical Marker of Chronic Stress. BMB Reports, 48, 209-216. https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&cd=1 2&ved=2ahUKEwiMk8zVlc_cAhXLHDQIHadMA6wQFjA LegQIBhAB&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.ncbi.nlm.nih .gov%2Fpmc%2Farticles%2FPMC4436856%2F&usg =AOvVaw0QGSdiKiEKkgE4PV_GCn2Z https://doi.org/10.5483/BMBRep.2015.48.4.275
Wester, V.L. and van Rossum, E.F.C. (2015) Special Section View, Clinical Applications of Cortisol Measurements in Hair. European Journal of Endocrinology, 173, M1-M10. http://www.eje-online.org/content/173/4/M1.long https://doi.org/10.1530/EJE-15-0313
Russell, E., Kirschbaum, C., Laudenslager, M., Stalder, T., de Rijke, Y., van Rossum, E.F.C., et al. (2015) Toward Standardization of Hair Cortisol Measurement: Results of the First International Interlaboratory Round Robin. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring, 37, 71-75. https://journals.lww.com/drug-monitoring/Abstract/ 2015/02000/Toward_Standardization_of_Hair_Cortisol.10.aspx https://doi.org/10.1097/FTD.0000000000000148
Gow, R., Thomson, S., Rieder, M., Van Uum, S. and Koren, G. (March 2010) An Assessment of Cortisol Analysis in Hair and Its Clinical Applications. Forensic Science International, 196, 32-37. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/ S0379073809005416 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2009.12.040
Pereg, D., Chan, J., Russell, E., Berlin, T., Mosseri, M., Seabrook, J.A., Koren, G. and Van Uum, S.H. (2013) Cortisol and Testosterone in Hair as Biological Markers of Systolic Heart Failure. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 38, 2875-2882. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/ S0306453013002655 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2013.07.015
Grine, A. and Rackley, S. (nd) Presumptive and Confirmatory Forensic Tests. https://www.sog.unc.edu/sites/www.sog.unc.edu/files/ course_materials/Presumptive%20and%20Confirmatory %20Forensic%20Tests.pdf
FDA (Food and Drugs Administration December 28, 2016) Food and Drugs Administration Warns of False Positive Results with Zika Test. Results from ZIKV Detect Assay Require Confirmatory Testing. Managed Care Magazine. https://www.managedcaremag.com/news/fda-warns-false -positive-results-zika-test
CDC. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Zika MAC-ELISA Updated: May 3, 2017). Fact Sheet for Healthcare Providers: Interpreting Zika MAC-ELISA Test Results. https://www.cdc.gov/zika/pdfs/interpreting-zika-mac-elisa-results.pdf
Report and Independent Review (De-cember 15, 2015) Report of the Motherisk Hair Analysis and Independent Review. The Honourable Justice Susan Lang, Independent Reviewer. https://www.attorneygeneral.jus.gov.on.ca/english/about/pubs/lang/
Statement of Claim. Koskie Minsky LLP (January 20, 2015) Statement of Claim Issued in SickKids “Motherisk” Lab Class Action. Minsky LLP and Sutts, Strosberg LLP Have Issued a Statement of Claim. https://kmlaw.ca/cases/motherisk-class-action/
Slominski, R., Rovnaghi, C.R. and Anand, K.J.S. (2015) Methodological Considerations for Hair Cortisol Measurements in Children. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring, 37, 812-820. https://journals.lww.com/drug-monitoring/Ab stract/2015/12000/Methodological_Considerations_ for_Hair_Cortisol.17.aspx https://doi.org/10.1097/FTD.0000000000000209
Krogh, C.M. and Aramini, J.J. (July 2017) Project Title: Investigating the Relationship between Noise and Other Exposures and Associated with Living within 10 km of an Industrial Wind Energy Facility, Status Update: Research Data Center (RDC). Wind Action. Status: Aramini-Krogh Project to Evaluate Health Canada Wind Turbine Noise and Health Study. http://www.windaction.org/posts/47021-status-ara mini-krogh-project-to-evaluate-health-canada-wi nd-turbine-noise-and-health-study
Barry, R., Sulsky, S.I. and Kreiger, N. (June 2018) Using Residential Proximity to Wind Turbines as an Alternative Exposure Measure to Investigate the Association between Wind Turbines and Human Health. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 143, 3278-3282. https://docs.wind-watch.org/Residential-proximity -wind-turbine-health-exposure.pdf https://doi.org/10.1121/1.5039840
Rideout, K., Copes, R. and Bos, C. (January 2010) Wind Turbines and Health. National Collaborating Centre for Environmental Health. http://www.ncceh.ca/sites/default/files/Wind_ Turbines_January_2010.pdf
CMOH (May 2010) The Potential Health Impact of Wind Turbines. Chief Medical Officer of Health Re-port. http://www.health.gov.on.ca/en/common/ministry/ publications/reports/wind_turbine/wind_turbine.pdf
Krogh, C. and Horner, B. (2017) Human Health, Rights and Wind Turbine Deployment in Canada. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 5, 166-185. https://file.scirp.org/pdf/JSS_2017051714591773.pdf https://doi.org/10.4236/jss.2017.55012
Jarosińska, D., Héroux, M.-è., Wilkhu, P., Creswick, J., Verbeek, J., Wothge, J. and Paunovic, E. (2018) Development of the WHO Environmental Noise Guidelines for the European Region: An Introduction. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 15, 813.
Poulsen, A.H., Raaschou-Nielsen, O., Pena, A., Hahmann, A.N., Nordsborg, R.B., Ketzel, M., Brandt, J. and Sorensen, M. (2018) Short-Term Nighttime Wind Turbine Noise and Cardiovascular Events: A Nationwide Case-Crossover Study from Denmark. Environment International, 114, 160-166.
Kasprzak, C. (2014) The Influence of Infrasound Noise from Wind Turbines on EEG Signal Patterns in Humans. Acta Physica Polonica A, 125, A20-A23. http://docs.wind-watch.org/Kasprzak-2014-infrasound -wind-turbines-EEG.pdf https://doi.org/10.12693/APhysPolA.125.A-20
Weichenberger, M., Bauer, M., Kühler, R., Hensel, J., Forlim, C.G., Ihlenfeld, A., et al. (2017) Altered Cortical and Subcortical Connectivity Due to Infrasound Administered near the Hearing Threshold—Evidence from fMRI. PLoS ONE, 12, e0174420. http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/ journal.pone.0174420 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone. 0174420
Fredianelli, L., Carpita, S. and Licitra, G. (2018) A Procedure for Deriving Wind Turbine Noise Limits by Taking into Account Annoyance. Science of the Total Environment, 648, 728-736. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/ S0048969718330717?via%3Dihub https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.08.107
WHO (2018) World Health Organization. Environmental Noise Guidelines for the European Region. Dr Zsuzsanna Jakab. WHO Regional Director for Europe. Regional Office for Europe. http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0008/ 383921/noise-guidelines-eng.pdf
North Stormont v. Ontario, Ministry of Environment and Climate Change (June 20, 2018) Case 18-028, Ontario Environmental Review Tribunal. Renewable Energy Approval Appeal. Nation Rise Wind Power Project. North Stormont, Ontario. Witness Statement by Wilson JE.
GEA (Green Energy and Green Economy Act, 2009) S.O. 2009, c. 12-Bill 150, Ontario, Canada. An Act to Enact the Green Energy Act, 2009 and to Build a Green Economy, to Repeal the Energy Conservation Leadership Act, 2006 and the Energy Efficiency Act and to Amend Other Statutes. Schedule G, 48. https://www.ola.org/sites/default/files/node-files/ bill/document/pdf/2009/2009-05/bill---text-39-1-en-b150ra.pdf
BioInitiative Working Group. Sage, C. and Carpenter, D.O., Eds. (December 31, 2012) BioInitiative Report: A Rationale for Biologically-Based Public Exposure Standards for Electromagnetic Radiation. Appendix 20-B. Standards of Evidence for Decision making Differs among Professions Pg 7, 8 Appendix III for Levels of Proof Schema. http://www.bioinitiative.org/
ATIP (2012) Access to Information and Privacy request. Health Canada. Innovation and Technology: Ensuring Health Benefits and Managing Risks for Canadians. Presentation by Paul Glover, Director General, Safe Environments Programme. AWMA Conference Calgary, September 16, 2005.
Berglund, B., Lindvall, T. and Schwela, D.H., Eds. (1999) Guidelines for Community Noise. Part 5. Noise Management. WHO, World Health Organization. https://www.who.int/docstore/peh/noise/Comnoise-5.pdf
McMurtry, R.Y. and Krogh, M.E. (2014) Diagnostic Criteria for Adverse Health Effects in the Environs of Wind Turbines. JRSM Open, 5. http://shr.sagepub.com http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Diagnosti c criteria for adverse health effects in the envir ons of wind turbines https://doi.org/10.1177/2054270414554048
Guideline of the Austrian Medical Association for the Diagnosis and Treatment of EMF-Related Health Problems and Illnesses (EMF Syndrome). Consensus Paper of the Austrian Medical Association’s Working Group AG-EMF. http://electromagnetichealth.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/ 04/EMF-Guideline.pdf