All Title Author
Keywords Abstract

Publish in OALib Journal
ISSN: 2333-9721
APC: Only $99

ViewsDownloads

A Review and the Length-Weight Relationship of Bluefish, Pomatomus saltatrix (Linnaeus, 1766), Pisces: Pomatomidae, at the Marine Extractive Reserve (RESEX-Mar) of Arraial do Cabo, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104770, PP. 1-23

Subject Areas: Zoology, Aquaculture, Fisheries & Fish Science

Keywords: Bluefish, Fishing Resource, LWR, Subsidize Fishery, Future Management

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib

Abstract

The bluefish, Pomatomus saltatrix (Linnaeus, 1766), the only representative of the Pomatomidae family, is a key fishing resource that represents a substantial part of the landings at RESEX-Mar of Arraial do Cabo-RJ. The species is broadly distributed throughout the continental shelf in tropical and warm temperate waters of the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans. It forms pelagic, large and fast moving shoals in relatively deep offshore waters, and draws close to the coast when temperatures reach from 12℃ to 15℃. Its displacement is conditioned to the movement of shoals of small fish such as herings; shrimp and squid, all of which are preyed upon. This work had the main purpose of evaluating the growth of bluefish through the distribution of length frequency (One-Way-ANOVA) and the Relationship between Total Length—TL (mm) and Total Weight—TW (g)-LWR; from daily data collections from March/2017 to March/2018. The analyzed specimens were obtained at fish markets of Arraial do Cabo-RJ and fish landings at the Fishermen’s Harbor of Praia dos Anjos. They were randomly sampled from fragmented cohorts of the local stock. A total of N = 2057 specimens were primary analyzed. TL values varied from 201 mm (minimum) in February/2018 to 915 mm (maximum) in September 2017. The average TL was of 541 mm and the average TW of 1428.5 g. The value of angular coefficient “b” in the potential flow was 2.6, and the value of “a” was 9E-05, expressed by the equation W = aLb for overall, where W = TW and L = TL. Values of W = 3E-05L2.7 were found for females and W = 2E- 05L2.8 for males. Knowledge over their general biology is extremely important when it comes to knowing the ecology of this species for subsidize a future and adequate fishery management.

Cite this paper

Cumplido, R. , Netto, E. B. F. , Rodrigues, M. T. , Junior, U. G. D. M. and Costa, P. A. S. D. (2018). A Review and the Length-Weight Relationship of Bluefish, Pomatomus saltatrix (Linnaeus, 1766), Pisces: Pomatomidae, at the Marine Extractive Reserve (RESEX-Mar) of Arraial do Cabo, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Open Access Library Journal, 5, e4770. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1104770.

References

[1]  Figueiredo, J.L. and Menezes, N.A. (1980) Manual de Peixes Marinhos do Sudeste do Brasil, III-Teleostei (2). University of Sao Paulo (USP), Museum of Zoology of the University of Sao Paulo, Editora da Universidade de Sao Paulo (Edusp), Sao Paulo, 90 p.
[2]  Carvalho-Filho, A. (1994) Peixes costa brasileira. Editora Marca D’agua, Sao Paulo, 308 p.
[3]  Szpilman, M. (2000) Peixes marinhos do Brasil-Guia prático de identificacao. Instituto Ecológico Aqualung (IEA), Donnelley-Cochrane Grafica Editora do Brasil Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, 288 p.
[4]  Figueiredo, J.L., Santos, A.P., Yamaguti, N., Bernardes, R.A. and Rossi-Wongt- schowski, C.L.D.B. (2002) Peixes da Zona Economica Exclusiva da Regiao Sudeste- Sul do Brasil-Levantamento com rede de meia agua. University of Sao Paulo (USP), Editora da Universidade de Sao Paulo (Edusp), Sao Paulo, 242 p.
[5]  Bernardes, R.A., Figueiredo, J.L., Rodrigues, A.R., Fischer, L.G., Vooren, C.M., Haimovici, M. and Rossi-Wongtschowski, C.L.D.B. (2005) Peixes da Zona Economica Exclusiva da Regiao Sudeste-Sul do Brasil-Levantamento com armadilhas, par- gueiras e rede de arrasto de fundo. University of Sao Paulo (USP), Editora da Universidade de Sao Paulo (Edusp), Sao Paulo, 304 p.
[6]  Hostim-Silva, M., Andrade, A.B., Machado, L.F., Gerhardinger, L.C., Daros, F.A., Barreiros, J.P. and Godoy, E. (2006) Peixes de Costao Rochoso de Santa Catarina, I- Arvoredo. University of Vale do Itajaí (UNIVALI), Editora da Universidade do Vale do Itajaí (UNIVALI), Itajaí, 148 p.
[7]  FISHBASE. Catalog of All Fish species Known to Science. (2013).
http://www.fishbase.org/home.htm
[8]  Krug, L.C. and Haimovici, M. (1989) Idade e Crescimento da Enchova Pomatomus saltatrix do Sul do Brasil. FURG-DO. Editora Atlantica, Rio Grande-RS, 11, 47-61.
[9]  Sipe, A.M. and Chittenden Jr., M.E. (2002) A Comparison of Calcified Structures for Ageing Bluefish in the Chesapeake Bay Region. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 131, 783-790.
https://doi.org/10.1577/1548-8659(2002)131<0783:ACOCSF>2.0.CO;2
[10]  CEPSUL. Centro de Pesquisa e Gestao dos Recursos Pesqueiros do Litoral Sudeste e Sul (2009) Relatorio sobre a reuniao técnica para o ordenamento da pesca de anchova (Pomatomus saltatrix) nas regioes sudeste e sul do Brasil. Itajaí, 98 p.
[11]  Lucena, F.M., O’Brien, C.M. and Reis, E.G. (2002) Effects of Exploitation by Two Co-Existing Fleets on the Bluefish, Pomatomus saltatrix, in Southern Brazil: An Application of a Seasonal Catch-at-Age Model. Marine and Freshwater Research, 53, 835-847.
https://doi.org/10.1071/MF00093
[12]  Lucena, F.M. and O’Brien, C.M. (2005) The Consequences of Different Scenarios in the Management of the Gillnet and Purse-Seine Fisheries Targeting Pomatomus saltatrix and Cynoscion guatucupa in Southern Brazil: A Bio-Economic Approach. Journal of Marine Science, 62, 201-213.
[13]  Norcross, J.J., Richardson, S.L., Massmann, W.H. and Joseph, E.B. (1974) Development of Young Bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix) and Distribution of Eggs and Young in Virginian Coastal Waters. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 103, 477-497.
https://doi.org/10.1577/1548-8659(1974)103<477:DOYBPS>2.0.CO;2
[14]  Kendall, A.W. and Walford, L.A. (1979) Sources and Distribution of Bluefish, Pomatomus saltatrix, Larvae and Juveniles off the East Coast of the United States. Fishery Bulletin US, 77, 213-227.
[15]  Collins, M.R. and Stender, B.W. (1987) Larval King Mackeral (Scomberomorus cavalla) Spanish Mackeral, (S. maculatus) and Bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix) off the Southeast Coast of the United State, 1973-1980s. Bulletin of Marine Science, 41, 822-834.
[16]  Haimovici, M. and Krug, L.C. (1996) Life History and Fishery of the Enchova, Pomatomus saltatrix, in Southern Brazil. Marine and Freshwater Research, 47, 357-363.
https://doi.org/10.1071/MF9960357
[17]  Juanes, F., Hare, J.A. and Miskiewicz, A.G. (1996) Comparing Early Life History Strategies of Pomatomus saltatrix: A Global Approach. Marine and Freshwater Research, 47, 365-379.
https://doi.org/10.1071/MF9960365
[18]  Salekhova, L.P. (1959) On the Development of the Bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix). Proceedings of Sevastopol Biological Station, 11, 182-188.
[19]  Deuel, D.G., Clark, J.R. and Mansueti, A.J. (1966) Description of Embryonic and Early Larval Stages of Bluefish Pomatomus saltatrix. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 95, 264-271.
https://doi.org/10.1577/1548-8659(1966)95[264:DOEAEL]2.0.CO;2
[20]  Richards, S.W. (1976) Age, Growth, and Food of Bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix) from East-Central Long Island Sound from July through November 1975. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 105, 523-525.
https://doi.org/10.1577/1548-8659(1976)105<523:
AGAFOB>2.0.CO;2
[21]  Marks, R.E. and Conover, D.O. (1993) Ontogenetic Shift in the Diet of Young-of- Year Bluefish Pomatomus saltatrix during the Oceanic Phase of the Early Life History. Fishery Bulletin, 91, 97-106.
[22]  Lucena, F.M., Vaske Jr., T., Ellis, J.R. and O’Brien, C.M. (2000) Seasonal Variation in the Diets of Bluefish, Pomatomus saltatrix (Pomatomidae) and Striped Weakfish, Cynoscion guatucupa (Sciaenidae) in Southern Brazil: Implications of Food Partitioning. Environmental Biology of Fishes, 57, 423-434.
https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1007604424423
[23]  Kasapoglu, N. and Duzgunes, E. (2013) Length-Weight Relationships of Marine Species Caught by Five Gears from the Black Sea. Mediterranean Marine Science, 15, 95-100.
https://doi.org/10.12681/mms.463
[24]  Goodbred, C.O. and Graves, J.E. (1996) Genetic Relationships among Geographically Isolated Populations of Bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix). Marine and Freshwater Research, 47, 347-355.
https://doi.org/10.1071/MF9960347
[25]  Graves, J.E., McDowell, J.R., Beardsley, A.M. and Scoles, D.R. (1992) Stock Structure of the Bluefish Pomatomus saltatrix along the Mid-Atlantic Coast. Fishery Bulletin, 90, 703-710.
[26]  Pardinas, A.F., Campo, D., Pola, I.G., Miralles, L., Juanes, F. and Garcia-Vazquez, E. (2010) Climate Change and Oceanic Barriers: Genetic Differentiation in Pomatomus saltatrix (Pisces: Pomatomidae) in the North Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. Journal of Fish Biology, 77, 1993-1998.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.2010.02774.x
[27]  Hare, J.A. and Cowen, R.K. (1993) Expatriation of Xyrichtys novacula (Pisces: Labridae) Larvae: Evidence of Rapid Cross Slope Exchange. Journal of Marine Resources, 49, 801-823.
https://doi.org/10.1357/002224091784995675
[28]  Buckel, J.A., Fogarty, M.J. and Conover, D.O. (1998) Foraging Habits of Bluefish, Pomatomus saltatrix, on the U.S. East Coast Continental Shelf. Fisheries Bulletin, 97, 758-775.
[29]  Ditty, J.G. and Shaw, R.F. (1995) Seasonal Occurrence, Distribution, and Abundance of Larval Bluefish, Pomatomus saltatrix (Family: Pomatomidae), in the Northern Gulf of Mexico. Bulletin of Marine Science, 56, 592-601.
[30]  Cengiz, O. (2014) A New Maximum Length Record of the Bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix Linnaeus, 1766) for Turkey Seas. BEU Journal of Science, 3, 113-116.
[31]  Roberts, C., Hawkins, J.P. and Campaign, W.E.S. (2000) Fully-Protected Marine Reserves: A Guide. WWF Endangered Seas Campaign, Washington DC.
[32]  Dulvy, N., Polunin, N.V., Mill, A. and Graham, N.A. (2004) Size Structural Change in Lightly Exploited Coral Reef Fish Communities: Evidence for Weak Indirect Effects. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 61, 466-475.
https://doi.org/10.1139/f03-169
[33]  Jackson, J.B. (2008) Ecological Extinction and Evolution in the Brave New Ocean. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105, 11458-11465.
https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0802812105
[34]  Bender, M.G., Machado, G.R., Silva, P.J.A., Floeter, S.R., Monteiro-Netto, C., et al. (2014) Local Ecological Knowledge and Scientific Data Reveal Overexploitation by Multigear Artisanal Fisheries in the Southwestern Atlantic. PLoS ONE, 9, e110332.
https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110332
[35]  Myers, R.A. and Worm, B. (2003) Rapid Worldwide Depletion of Predatory Fish Communities. Nature, 423, 280-283.
https://doi.org/10.1038/nature01610
[36]  Halpern, B.S., Walbridge, S., Selkoe, K.A., Kappel, C.V., Micheli, F., et al. (2008) A Global Map of Human Impact on Marine Ecosystems. Science, 319, 948-952.
https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1149345
[37]  Floeter, S., Halpern, B.S. and Ferreira, C. (2006) Effects of Fishing and Protection on Brazilian Reef Fishes. Biological Conservation, 128, 391-402.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2005.10.005
[38]  Fredou, T. (2004) The Fishing Activity on Coral Reefs and Adjacent Ecosystems: A Case Study of the Northeast of Brazil. Cybium, 28, 274.
[39]  Rezende, Sd.M. and Ferreira, B.P. (2004) Age, Growth and Mortality of Dog Snapper Lutjanus jocu (Bloch & Schneider, 1801) in the Northeast Coast of Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Oceanography, 52, 107-121.
https://doi.org/10.1590/S1679-87592004000200003
[40]  Pauly, D., Christensen, V., Dalsgaard, J., Froese, R. and Torres, F. (1998) Fishing down Marine Food Webs. Science, 279, 860-863.
https://doi.org/10.1126/science.279.5352.860
[41]  Ferreira, C. and Goncalves, J. (1999) The Unique Abrolhos Reef Formation (Brazil), Need for Specific Management Strategies. Coral Reefs, 18, 352-352.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s003380050211
[42]  Freire, K.M. and Pauly, D. (2010) Fishing down Brazilian Marine Food Webs, with Emphasis on the East Brazil Large Marine Ecosystem. Fisheries Research, 105, 57-62.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2010.02.008
[43]  Ministério do Meio Ambiente (2004) Diario Oficial da Uniao—Secao 1. 136-142.
[44]  Erzini, K. (1994) An Empirical Study of Variability in Length at Age of Marine Fishes. Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 10, 17-41.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0426.1994.tb00140.x
[45]  Frota, L.O., Costa, P.A.S. and Braga, A.C. (2004) Length-Weight Relationships of Marine Fishes from the Central Brazilian Coast. World Fish Center Quarterly, 27, 20-26.
[46]  Kalayci, F., Samsun, N., Bilgin, S. and Samsun, O. (2007) Length-Weight Relationship of 10 Fish Species Caught by Bottom Trawl and Midwater Trawl from the Middle Black Sea, Turkey. Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 7, 33-36.
[47]  Ak, O., Kutlu, S. and Aydin, I. (2009) Length-Weight Relationship for 16 Fish Species from the Eastern Black Sea. Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 9, 125-126.
[48]  Ozdemir, S., Erdem, Y., Ozdemir Birinci, Z. and Erdem, E. (2009) Karadenizde dip trolü ile Ekim ve Kasim aylarinda avlanan lufer (Pomatomus saltatrix, L.) baliginin av verimi ve boy kompozisyonun karsilastirilmasi. Erciyes, Universitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitusu Dergisi, 25, 400-408.
[49]  Bal, H., Yanik, T. and Turker, T. (2015) Length-Weight and Length-Length Relationships of the Bluefish Pomatomus saltatrix (Linnaeus. 1766) Population in the South Marmara Sea of Turkey. Alinteri, 29, 26-33.
[50]  Ozpicak, M., Saygin, S. and Polat, N. (2017) The Length-Weight and Length-Length Relationships of Bluefish, Pomatomus saltatrix (Linnaeus, 1766) from Samsun, Middle Black Sea Region. NE Sciences, 2, 28-36.
https://doi.org/10.28978/nesciences.349265
[51]  Kohler, N., Casey, J. and Turner, P. (1995) Length-Weight Relationship for 13 Species of Sharks from the Western North Atlantic. Fishery Bulletin, 93, 412-418.
[52]  Stergiou, K. and Politou, C.Y. (1995) Biological Parameters, Body Length-Weight and Length-Height Relationships for Various Species in Greek Waters. Naga, 18, 42-45.
[53]  Morey, G., Moranta, J., Massuti, E., Grau, A., Linde, M., Riera, F. and Morales-Nin, B. (2003) Weight-Length Relationships of Littoral to Lower Slope Fishes from the Western Mediterranean. Fisheries Research, 62, 89-96.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0165-7836(02)00250-3
[54]  Sinovcic, G., Franicevic, M., Zorica, B. and Ciles-Kec, V. (2004) Length-Weight and Length-Length Relationships for 10 Pelagic Fish Species from the Adriatic Sea (Croatia). Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 20, 156-158.
https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1439-0426.2003.00519.x
[55]  Vaslet, A., Bouchon-Navaro, Y., Louis, M. and Bouchon, C. (2008) Weight-Length Relationships for 20 Fish Species Collected in the Mangroves of Guadeloupe (Lesser Antilles). Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 24, 99-100.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0426.2007.01023.x
[56]  Borah, S., Bhattacharjya, B.K., Saud, B.J., Yadav, A.K., Debnath, D., Yengkokpam, S., Das, P., Sharma, N., Singh, N.S. and Sarma, K.K. (2017) Length-Weight Relationship of Six Indigenous Fish Species from Deep or Beel, a Ramsar Site in Assam, India. Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 33, 655-657.
https://doi.org/10.1111/jai.13348
[57]  Erguden, D., Erguden, S.A., Ozdemir, O. and Gurlek, M. (2017) Length-Weight Relationship and Condition Factor of Spotted Flounder Citharus linguatula (Linnaeus, 1758) in Iskenderun Bay, North-Eastern Mediterranean, Turkey. NESciences, 2, 11-17.
[58]  da Silva, V.E.L., Teixeira, E.C., Batista, V.S. and Fabré, N.N. (2017) Length-Weight Relationships of Two Mugilids Species from Tropical Estuarine Systems in Alagoas, Northeastern Coast of Brazil. Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 33, 631-632.
https://doi.org/10.1111/jai.13325
[59]  Le Cren, E.D. (1951) The Length-Weight Relationship and Seasonal Cycle in Gonad Weight and Conditions in the Perch (Perca fluviatilis). Freshwater Biology Association, 20, 201-219.
https://doi.org/10.2307/1540
[60]  Zar, J.H. (1984) Biostatistical Analysis. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River.
[61]  King, M. (1995) Fisheries Biology, Assessment and Management. Fishing New Books, Blackwell Science Ltd., Cambridge.
[62]  Froese, R. (2006) Cube Law, Condition Factor, and Weight-Length Relationships: History, Meta-Analysis and Recommendations. Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 22, 241-253.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0426.2006.00805.x
[63]  Navarro, M.R., Villamor, B., Myklevoll, S., Gil, J., Abaunza, P. and Canoura, J. (2012) Maximum Size of Atlantic Mackerel (Scomber scombrus) and Atlantic Chub Mackerel (Scomber colias) in the Northeast Atlantic. Cybium, 36, 406-408.
[64]  Pimenta, E. and Hargreaves, P. (1999) Relatorio de avaliacao tecnica da viabilidade de zoneamento costeiro e oceanico para bioproducao e atividades complementares. IBAMA—Cabo Frio and COPPE/UFRJ.
[65]  Seixas, C.S. (2008) Co-Managing a Complex Commons: The Case of a Marine Protected Area Established along a Coastal Urban Setting in Brazil. 12th Biennial Conference of the International Association for the Study of Commons, 1-21.
[66]  Kruel, V.S. da F. and Peixoto, A.L. (2004) Etnobotanica na Reserva Extrativista Marinha de Arraial do Cabo, RJ, Brazil. Acta Botanica Brasilica, 18, 177-190.
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0102-33062004000100015
[67]  Moraes, E.A., et al. (2008) A leitura da Gestao Socioambiental da Reserva Extra- tivista Marinha de Arraial do Cabo sob a ótica dos Pescadores Locais (III Relatório Tecnico). Laboratório de Sistemas Avancados de Gestao da Producao do Programa de Engenharia de Producao da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ). 1-20.
[68]  Azevedo Silva, P.J. (2004) Onze Anos de Producao Pesqueira na Regiao de Arraial do Cabo RJ. Niterói: MS.c. Dissertation, Department of Marine Biology UFF.
[69]  Secretaria Especial de Aquicultura e Pesca/Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renováveis—SEAP/IBAMA (2005) Normative Instruction SEAP No. 6 de 04/05/2005.
[70]  Valentin, J.L. (1994) A ressurgencia—fonte de vida dos oceanos. Ciencia Hoje, 18, 18-25.
[71]  Rodrigues, M.T. (2011) Ressurgencia—fenomeno da vida. Revista do Meio Ambiente, 5, 22-23.
[72]  Ricker, W.E. (1979) Growth Rates and Models. In: Hoar, W.S., Randal, D.J. and Brett Jr., Eds., Fish Physiology Vol. VIII. Bioenergetics and Growth, Academic Press, Cambridge, 677-743.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S1546-5098(08)60034-5
[73]  Sokal, R.R. and Rholf, F.J. (1987) Introduction to Biostatistics. Freeman and Co., New York, 365s.
[74]  Carlander, K.D. (1977) Handbook of Freshwater Fishery Biology, Vol. 2. The Iowa State University Press, Ames, 431.
[75]  Froese, R., Thorson, J.T. and Reyes, R.B. (2014) A Bayesian Approach for Estimating Length-Weight Relationships in Fishes. Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 30, 78-85.
https://doi.org/10.1111/jai.12299
[76]  Tesch, W. (1971) Growth Rates and Models. In: Ricker, W.E., Ed., Methods for Assessment of Fish Production in Fresh Waters, 2nd Edition, International Biological Program, Oxford and Edinburg, 97-130.
[77]  Bagenal, T.B. and Tesch, F.W. (1978) Age and Growth. In: Bagenal, T., Ed., Methods for Assessment of Fish Production in Fresh Waters, 3rd Edition, IBP Handbook No. 3, Blackwell Science Publications, Oxford.
[78]  Hossain, M.Y., Ahmed, Z.F., Leunda, P.M., Toksanul Islam, A.K.M., Jasmine, S., Oscoz, J., Miranda, R. and Ohtomi, J. (2006) Length-Weight and Length-Length Relationships of Some Small Indigenous Fish Species from the Mathabhanga River, South-Western Bangladesh. Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 22, 301-303.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0426.2006.00801.x
[79]  Froese, R. and Pauly, D. (2010) Fishbase: World Wide Web Electronic Publication.
http://www.fishbase.org/search.php
[80]  Garcia, C.B., Buarte, J.O., Sandoval, N., Von Schiller, D. and Mello, N.P. (1989) Length-Weight Relationships of Demersal Fishes from the Gulf of Salamanca, Colombia. Fishbyte, 21, 30-32.
[81]  Singh, M. and Serajuddin, M. (2017) Length-Weight, Length-Length Relationship and Condition Factor of Channa punctatus Collected from Three Different Rivers of India. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies, 5, 191-197.
[82]  Ricker, W.E. (1975) Computation and Interpretation of Biological Statistics of Fish Populations. Bulletin of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 191.
[83]  Helfman, G.S., Collatte, B.B., Facey, D.E. and Bowen, B.W. (2009) The Diversity of Fishes: Biology, Evolution and Ecology. 2nd Edition, Wiley-Blackwell, Hoboken, 720s.
[84]  Carpenter, K.E., Ralph, G., Pina Amargos, F., Collette, B.B., Singh-Renton, S., Aiken, K.A., Dooley, J. and Marechal, J. (2015) Pomatomus saltatrix. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T190279A115314064.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2015-4.RLTS.T190279A19929357.en
[85]  Bender, M., Floeter, S., Mayer, F., Vila-Nova, D., Longo, G., et al. (2013) Biological Attributes and Major Threats as Predictors of the Vulnerability of Species: A Case Study with Brazilian Reef Fishes. Oryx, 47, 259-265.
https://doi.org/10.1017/S003060531100144X
[86]  FAO (2011) Fishstat—FAO Fishery and Aquaculture Global Statistics.
http://www.fao.org/fishery/statistics/software/fishstatj/en
[87]  Silvano, R. and Begossi, A. (2010) What Can Be Learned from Fishers? An Integrated Survey of Fishers’ Local Ecological Knowledge and Bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix) Biology on the Brazilian Coast. Hydrobiologia, 637, 3-18.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10750-009-9979-2
[88]  Barger, L.E. (1990) Age and Growth of Bluefish Pomatomus saltatrix from the Northern Gulf of Mexico and U.S. South Atlantic Coast. Fishery Bulletin, 88, 805-809.
[89]  Erkoyuncu, I., Erdem, M., Samsun, O., Ozdamar, E. and Kaya, Y. (1994) A Research on the Determination of Meat Yields. Chemical Composition and Weight-Length Relationship of Some Fish Species Caught in the Black Sea. Istanbul University Journal of Aquatic Products, 8, 181-191.
[90]  Bernardes, R.A. and Rossi-Wongtschowski, C.L.D.B. (2000) Length-Weight Relationship of Small Pelagic Fish Species of the Southeast and South Brazilian Exclusive Economic Zone. NAGA, 23, 30-32.
[91]  Haimovici, M. and Velasco, G. (2000) Length-Weight Relationship of Marine Fishes Southern Brazil. NAGA, 23, 19-23.
[92]  Morato, T., Afonso, P., Loirinho, P., Barreiros, J.P., Santos, R.S. and Nash, R.D.M. (2001) Length-Weight Relationships for 21 Costal Fish Species of the Azores. North-Eastern Atlantic. Fisheries Research, 50, 297-302.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0165-7836(00)00215-0
[93]  Ceyhan, T. (2005) Bluefish in the North Aegean and Marmara Region (Pomatomus saltatrix L. 1766) Some Characteristics of Population Studies. Ege University, Institute of Science and Technology.
[94]  Bok, T.D., Gokturk, D., Kahraman, A.E., Alicli, T.Z., Acun, T., et al. (2011) Length-Weight Relationships of 34 Fish Species from the Sea of Marmara, Turkey. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, 10, 3037-3042.
[95]  Pauly, D. and Zeller, D. (2016) Catch Reconstructions Reveal That Global Marine Fisheries Catches Are Higher than Reported and Declining. Nature Communications, 7, Article No. 10244.
https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms10244
[96]  Pauly, D. (2006) Major Trends in Small-Scale Marine Fisheries, with Emphasis on Developing Countries, and Some Implications for the Social Sciences. Marit. Studies, 4, 7-22.
[97]  Zeller, D., Harper, S., Zylich, K. and Pauly, D. (2015) Synthesis of Under-Reported Small-Scale Fisheries Catch in Pacific-Island Waters. Coral Reefs, 34, 25-39.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00338-014-1219-1

Full-Text


comments powered by Disqus

Contact Us

service@oalib.com

QQ:3279437679

微信:OALib Journal