Laos, the cultivation of fast growing trees as eucalypts has been promoted due
to a rapid decline in natural forest cover. However, this expansion of fast
growing trees might not end in a win-win situation for both humans and the
environment. This paper examines the social and ecological potentials of Eucalyptus
cultivation and the resultant environmental consequences. To achieve this, we
carried out a comprehensive survey of published scientific literature obtained
through Web of Science, Researchgate, Mendeley, and Google Scholar. We found
that eucalyptus is a fast-growing source of wood and produces oils used in
fuels, fragrances, and insecticides. Despite being of this high commercial
value to rural farmers and large industries, eucalyptus harms watersheds and if
not properly managed, destroys ecosystems through its allelopathic and water
absorption tendencies. Nevertheless, with adequate and effective management and
proper sustainable planning or involvement of rural farmers in the decision
making process, eucalyptus cultivation would have a very positive social and
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