All Title Author
Keywords Abstract

Publish in OALib Journal
ISSN: 2333-9721
APC: Only $99

ViewsDownloads

Temperature Tolerance Test Exposition with Temperate Sea Anemone Actinia equina, a Climatic and Environmental Changes Simulation

DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1103360, PP. 1-24

Subject Areas: Animal Behavior, Marine Biology

Keywords: Temperature Tolerance, Behavior, Early Warning, Climatic Changes

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib

Abstract

Atlantic and Mediterranean warming-related diseases outbreaks and species shifts recently have been documented. Evaluated tools of short-term effects on the health or organisms resistance are necessary to assess and understand mechanisms affecting marine biodiversity. Until now, climate warming has been studied at the population or community level. Here we offer a better understanding of such phenomena at the individual organism level, using anatomic-morphological approaches to interpret effects of natural physical stressors, according to behavioral patterns. The goal of this work was to evaluate the sea anemones behavior with temperature variance. This study takes a method of behavioral observations (morphological and anatomic parameters, with physiological implications) to identify changes in behavior, after exposure to the physical stressors temperature (10℃, 15, 20, 25 and 30) on temperate sea anemone Actinia equina over 96 h of exposure. Other endpoints as condition index and reproduction also assessed. Behavioral patterns analysis placed the differentially ecological functions in a wide range of categories including tentacle flexion, tentacle retraction, column cavitation, peristome depression and oral disc flexion. These parameters suggest that the “early stress response” (before result on individual death) to elevated temperature involves essentially all aspects of same chemical reactions. In this case we observed receptors functioning and the frequency of open-close oral sea anemones, tentacles and columns anatomic alterations to detect earlier the effects of physical stress induction. The superiority of results tested was that the key species reacted to different temperature ranges in order to demonstrate that species from different climatic zones could have the same behavioral pattern but have intrinsic adaptations on each climatic zone. Also some collections of parameters such as: 1) water nutrients availability, 2) reproductions rate (number of polyps), 3) survival (condition index) and 4) temperature variations were significant on behavioral answers.

Cite this paper

Gadelha, J. R. , Jesus, F. , Gomes, P. B. , Osten, J. R. V. , Morgado, F. and Soares, A. M. V. D. M. (2017). Temperature Tolerance Test Exposition with Temperate Sea Anemone Actinia equina, a Climatic and Environmental Changes Simulation. Open Access Library Journal, 4, e3360. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1103360.

References

[1]  Lesser, M.P. (1997) Oxidative Stress Causes Coral Bleaching during Exposure to Elevated Temperatures. Coral Reefs, 16, 187-192.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s003380050073
[2]  Pérez, S.F., Cook, C.B. and Brooks, W.R. (2001) The Role of Symbiotic Dinoflagellates in the Temperature-Induced Bleaching Response of the Subtropical Sea Anemone Aiptasia pallida. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 256, 1-14.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-0981(00)00282-3
[3]  Richier, S., Sabourault, C., Courtiade, J., Zucchini, N., Allemand, D. and Furla, P. (2006) Oxidative Stress and Apoptotic Events during Thermal Stress in the Symbiotic Sea Anemone, Anemonia viridis. FEBS Journal, 273, 4186-4198.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1742-4658.2006.05414.x
[4]  Bhagooli, R. and Hidaka, M. (2004) Release of Zooxanthellae with Intact Photosynthetic Activity by the Coral Galaxea fascicularis in Response to High Temperature Stress. Marine Biology, 145, 329-337.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00227-004-1309-7
[5]  Dunn, S.R., Bythell, J.C., Le Tissier, M.D.A., Burnett, W.J. and Thomason, J.C. (2002) Programmed Cell Death and Cell Necrosis Activity during Hyper Thermic Stress-Induced Bleaching of the Symbiotic Sea Anemone Aiptasia sp. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 272, 29-53.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-0981(02)00036-9
[6]  Muscatine, L., Grossman, D. and Doino, J. (1991) Release of Symbiotic Algae by Tropical Sea Anemones and Corals after Cold Shock. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 77. 233-243.
https://doi.org/10.3354/meps077233
[7]  Gates, R.D., Bahgdasarian, G. and Muscatine, L. (1992) Temperature Stress Causes Host Cell Detachment in Symbiotic Cnidarians: Implications for Coral Bleaching. The Biological Bulletin, 182, 324-332.
https://doi.org/10.2307/1542252
[8]  Di Marco, T. (2008) Effects of Ultraviolet Radiation on the Behavior of the Sea Anemone Anthopleura elegantissima. Explorations: An Undergraduate Research Journal, 1-10.
[9]  Clark, E.D. and Kimeldorf, D.J. (1971) Behavioral Reactions of the Sea Anemone, Anthopleura xanthogrammica, to Ultraviolet and Visible Radiations. Radiation Research, 45, 166-175.
https://doi.org/10.2307/3573089
[10]  Walsh, P.J. and Somero, G.N. (1981) Temperature Adaptation in Sea Anemones: Physiological and Biochemical Variability in Geographically Separate Populations of Metridium senile. Marine Biology, 62, 25-34.
https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00396948
[11]  Gadelha, J.R., Morgado, F. and Soares, A.M.V.M. (2013) Histology and Histochemistry of Sea Anemones in Environmental Contamination Studies. Microscopy and Microanalysis, 19, 57-58.
https://doi.org/10.1017/S1431927613000901
[12]  Saldanha, L. (1974) Estudo do povoamento dos horizontes superior da rocha litoral da costa da Arrábida. Arq.Mus.Boc. 2a sér: 5, 382 p.
[13]  Bae, M.-J. and Park, Y.-S. (2014) Biological Early Warning System Based on the Responses of Aquatic Organisms to Disturbances: A Review. Science of the Total Environment, 466-467, 635-649.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.07.075
[14]  Moreira, S.M., Moreira-Santos, M., Ribeiro, R. and Guilhermino, L. (2005) The “Coral Bulker” Fuel Oil Spill on the North Coast of Portugal: Spatial and Temporal Biomarker Responses in Mytilus galloprovincialis. Ecotoxicology, 13, 619-630.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10646-003-4422-3
[15]  Cornelius, P.F.S. (1995) Handbook of the Marine Fauna of North-West Europe. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 800.
[16]  Zelnio, K.A., Rodriguez, E. and Daly, M. (2009) Hexacorals (Anthozoa: Actiniaria, Zoanthidea) from Hydrothermal Vents in the Southwestern Pacific. Marine Biology Research, 5, 547-571.
https://doi.org/10.1080/17451000902729662
[17]  Scott, A. and Harrison, P.L. (2009) Gametogenic and Reproductive Cycles of the Sea Anemone, Mytilus galloprovincialis. Marine Biology, 156, 1659-1671.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00227-009-1201-6
[18]  USEPA (1994) Water Quality Standards Handbook. Chapter 2: Designation of Uses. 40 CFR 131.10.
[19]  Gadelha, J.R., Ferreira, V., Abreu, S.N., Soares, A.M.V.M. and Morgado, F. (2010) Actinia equina Bioassays Adopting Techniques from Acclimatizing in a Flow-Through System. SETAC Europe Meeting, Sevilla, 23-27 May 2010, 196.
[20]  Gadelha, J.R., Ferreira, V.A.M., Abreu, S.N., Soares, A.M.V.M. and Morgado, F. (2010) Experimental Mercury Bioaccumulation Trends in Sea Anemone Actinia equina Exposed to Chlor-Alkali Industry Effluent Contaminated Water. Interdisciplinary Studies on Environmental Chemistry, 3, 149-157.
[21]  Gadelha, J.R., Asensio, A.R., Gonzales, I., Aboal, J.R., Carballeira, A., Vieira, L.R., Guilhermino, L., Abreu, S.N., Rendón von Osten, J., Morgado, F. and Soares, A.M.V.M. (2011) Differential Accumulation of Metals and Changes in Cholinesterases and 15N Levels in the Sea Anemone Anemoniasulcata (Cnidaria) as a Function of Aquaculture Effluent Gradient Exposition. SETAC Europe Meeting, Milan, 15-19 May 2011, 152.
[22]  Gadelha, J.R., Morgado, F., Faustino, A. and Soares, A.M.V.M. (2012) Histological and Structural Analysis of Actinia equina L. (Cnidaria: Anthozoa). Microscopy and Microanalysis, 18, 61-62.
https://doi.org/10.1017/S1431927612012962
[23]  Jordi, P. and Green, A.J. (2009) New Perspectives for Estimating Body Condition from Mass/Length Data: The Scaled Mass Index as an Alternative Method. Oikos, 118, 1883-1891.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0706.2009.17643.x
[24]  Eaton, A.D., et al. (2004) Standard Methods for the Examination of Water & Wastewater. 21st Edition, APHA-AWWA-WEF, Washington DC.
[25]  Jeffrey, S.W. and Humphrey, G.F. (1975) New Spectrophotometric Equations for Determining Chlorophylls a, b, c and c2 in Higher Plants, Algae and Natural Phytoplankton. Biochemie und Physiologie der Pflanzen, 167, 191-194.
[26]  IBM Corporation (1989) 2011 SPSS Statistic, Version 20. IBM Corporation, New York.
[27]  Zar, J.H. (1996) Biostatistical Analysis. Prentice Hall, London.
[28]  Chomsky, O. (2004) Factors Controlling the Body Size, Abundance and Distribution of the Sea Anemone Actinia equina. PhD Thesis.
[29]  Chomsky, O., Kamenir, Y., Hyams, M., Dubinsky, Z. and Chadwick-Furman, N.E. (2004) Effects of Temperature on Growth Rate and Body Size in the Mediterranean Sea Anemone Actinia equina. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 313, 63-73.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jembe.2004.07.017
[30]  Chomsky, O., Douek, J., Chadwick, N.E., Dubinsky, Z., Mina, B.R. and Goodm, E. (2009) Biological and Population-Genetic Aspects of the Sea Anemone Actinia equina (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) along the Mediterranean Coast of Israel. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 375, 16-20.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jembe.2009.04.017
[31]  Dunn, S.R., Thomason, J.C., Le Tissier, M.D.A. and Bythell, J.C. (2004) Heat Stress Induces Different Forms of Cell Death in Sea Anemones and Their Endosymbiotic Algae Depending on Temperature and Duration. Cell Death and Differentiation, 11, 1213-1222.
https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.cdd.4401484
[32]  Chomsky, O., Kamenir, Y., Hyams, M., Dubinsky, Z. and Chadwick-Furman, N.E. (2004) Effects of Feeding Regime on Growth Rate in the Mediterranean Sea Anemone Actinia equina (Linnaeus). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 299, 217-229.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jembe.2003.09.009
[33]  Beitinger, T.L. and McCauley, R.W. (1990) Whole-Animal Physiological Processes for the Assessment of Stress in Fishes. Journal of Great Lakes Research, 16, 542-575.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0380-1330(90)71445-1
[34]  Dell’Omo, G., Pleskacheva, M., Wolfer, D.P., Lipp, H.-P. and Shore, R.F. (2003) Comparative Effects of Exposure to an Organophosphate Pesticide on Locomotor Activity of Laboratory Mice and Five Species of Wild Rodents. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 70, 138-145.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-002-0167-6
[35]  Scott, G.R. and Sloman, K.A. (2004) The Effects of Environmental Pollutants on Complex Fish Behavior: Integrating Behavioral and Physiological Indicators of Toxicity. Aquatic Toxicology, 68, 369-392.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2004.03.016
[36]  Lagadic, L., Caquet, T. and Ramade, F. (1994) The Role of Biomarkers in Environmental Assessment Invertebrate Populations and Communities. Ecotoxicology, 3, 193-208.
https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00117084
[37]  Weis, V.M. (2008) Cellular Mechanisms of Cnidarian Bleaching: Stress Causes the Collapse of Symbiosis. Journal of Experimental Biology, 211, 3059-3066.
https://doi.org/10.1242/jeb.009597
[38]  Lesser, M.P. (2006) Oxidative Stress in Marine Environments: Biochemistry and Physiological Ecology. Annual Review of Physiology, 68, 253-278.
https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.physiol.68.040104.110001
[39]  Fitt, W.K., Brown, B.E., Warner, M.E. and Dunne, R.P. (2001) Coral Bleaching Interpretation of Thermal Tolerance Limits and Thermal Thresholds in Tropical Corals. Coral Reefs, 20, 51-65.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s003380100146

Full-Text


comments powered by Disqus

Contact Us

service@oalib.com

QQ:3279437679

WhatsApp +8615387084133

WeChat 1538708413