All Title Author
Keywords Abstract

Publish in OALib Journal
ISSN: 2333-9721
APC: Only $99


Prevalence of Malaria Positive Rapid Diagnostic Test and Antimalarial Treatment in Patients with Fevers in the Accident and Emergency Unit of Effia Nkwanta Regional Hospital, Western Region, Ghana

DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1103097, PP. 1-8

Subject Areas: Global Health, Infectious Diseases

Keywords: Rapid Diagnostic Test, Malaria, Plasmodium falciparum, Antimalarial

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib


Background: Rapid diagnostic test (RDT) is a simpler, easy to read malaria diagnostic test. It was introduced by the World Health Organization (WHO) to supplement the use of microscopy and can be used alone in areas where microscopy is unavailable. Its introduction was necessary to maintain the WHO test-based treatment protocol for malaria, as dependence of microscopy which is the gold standard is not possible in many areas in Sub-Saharan Africa which lack the wherewithal to run efficient laboratory services. WHO strongly recommends that only patients with parasitological confirmation of malaria should be treated with antimalarial drugs. In this study, the prevalence of malaria positive RDT and antimalarial treatment was evaluated in patients presenting with fevers at the outpatient section of the accident and emergency unit of the Effia Nkwanta Regional Hospital, Ghana. Methodology: This was a retrospective study carried out in the outpatient section of the accident emergency unit of Effia Nkwanta Regional Hospital. The outpatient register was reviewed from October 2014 to March 2015, for patients who came with fever. Data on demographics, malaria RDT status and antimalarial treatment were collected and analyzed. Result: A total of 607 patients with fever had their RDT performed. Of these, 131 (21.58%) were positive for malaria while 467 (78.42%) were negative. Out of the 131 tested positive, 55 represented patients above 12 years and 76 represent children aged 0 to12 years, p = 0.002. Fifty children under the age of 5 years tested positive for malaria whereas 26 were above the age 5 years, p = 0.03. All the 131 positive patients were treated for malaria while 276 out of 476 negative patients were also treated for malaria, p < 0.001. Conclusion: Patients positive for malaria RDT in this study were lower. Children were more positive for malaria than adults, with those under 5 years constituting the majority. This study also shows that indiscriminate malaria prescription is still a problem, a situation that should be tackled immediately, to prevent malaria parasite being resistant to current antimalarial drugs.

Cite this paper

Orish, V. N. , Ofori-Amoah, J. , Afeke, I. , Jamfaru, I. , Adongo, D. W. and Amegan-Aho, K. H. (2016). Prevalence of Malaria Positive Rapid Diagnostic Test and Antimalarial Treatment in Patients with Fevers in the Accident and Emergency Unit of Effia Nkwanta Regional Hospital, Western Region, Ghana. Open Access Library Journal, 3, e3097. doi:


[1]  World Health Organization (2014) World Malaria Report 2013. World Health Organization Google Scholar, Geneva.
[2]  World Health Organization (2015) World Malaria Report: 2012. Geneva: WHO, 2012. Fecha de Consulta, 23, 247.
[3]  Whitty, C.J., Chandler, C., Ansah, E., Leslie, T. and Staedke, S.G. (2008) Deployment of ACT Antimalarials for Treatment of Malaria: Challenges and Opportunities. Malaria Journal, 7, 1.
[4]  Reyburn, H., Mbatia, R., Drakeley, C., Carneiro, I., Mwakasungula, E., Mwerinde, O. and Greenwood, B.M. (2004) Overdiagnosis of Malaria in Patients with Severe Febrile Illness in Tanzania: A Prospective Study. BMJ, 329, 1212.
[5]  Oladosu, O.O. and Oyibo, W.A. (2012) Overdiagnosis and Overtreatment of Malaria in Children That Presented with Fever in Lagos, Nigeria. ISRN Infectious Diseases.
[6]  World Health Organization (2008) World Malaria Report. World Health Organization, Geneva.
[7]  Chandramohan, D., Jaffar, S. and Greenwood, B. (2002) Use of Clinical Algorithms for Diagnosing Malarial.Tropical Medicine & International Health, 7, 45-52.
[8]  World Health Organization (2005) Technical Updates of the Guidelines on the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI): Evidence and Recommendations for Further Adaptations.
[9]  Baiden, F., Malm, K., Bart-Plange, C., Hodgson, A., Chandramohan, D., Webster, J. and Owusu-Agyei, S. (2014) Shifting from Presumptive to Test-Based Management of Malaria- Technical Basis and Implications for Malaria Control in Ghana. Ghana Medical Journal, 48, 112-122.
[10]  World Health Organization (2006) Guidelines for the Treatment of Malaria. World Health Organization.
[11]  Reyburn, H., Mbakilwa, H., Mwangi, R., Mwerinde, O., Olomi, R., Drakeley, C. and Whitty, C.J. (2007) Rapid Diagnostic Tests Compared with Malaria Microscopy for Guiding Outpatient Treatment of Febrile Illness in Tanzania: Randomised Trial. BMJ, 334, 403.
[12]  Abreha, T., Alemayehu, B., Tadesse, Y., Gebresillassie, S., Tadesse, A., Demeke, L. and Teshome, D. (2014) Malaria Diagnostic Capacity in Health Facilities in Ethiopia. Malaria Journal, 13, 1.
[13]  Fonjungo, P.N., Kebede, Y., Messele, T., Ayana, G., Tibesso, G., Abebe, A. and Kenyon, T. (2012) Laboratory Equipment Maintenance: A Critical Bottleneck for Strengthening Health Systems in Sub-Saharan Africa & Quest. Journal of Public Health Policy, 33, 34-45.
[14]  Derua, Y.A., Ishengoma, D.R., Rwegoshora, R.T., Tenu, F., Massaga, J.J., Mboera, L.E. and Magesa, S.M. (2011) Users’ and Health Service Providers’ Perception on Quality of Laboratory Malaria Diagnosis in Tanzania. Malaria Journal, 10, 1.
[15]  Moody, A. (2002) Rapid Diagnostic Tests for Malaria Parasites. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 15, 66-78.
[16]  National Malaria Control Programme Ghana Health Service.
[17]  Afoakwah, C., Nunoo, J. and Andoh, F.K. (2015) Effect of Insecticide-Treated Bed Net Usage on Under-Five Mortality in Northern Ghana. Malaria Journal, 14, 1.
[18]  Orish, V.N., Ansong, J.Y., Anagi, I.B., Onyeabor, O.S., Sanyaolu, A.O. and Iriemenam, N.C. (2015) Malaria and Associated Co-Morbidity in Children Admitted with Fever Manifestation in Western Ghana: A Retrospective Study. The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries, 9, 1257-1263.
[19]  Obonyo, C.O., Vulule, J., Akhwale, W.S. and Grobbee, D.E. (2007) In-Hospital Morbidity and Mortality Due to Severe Malarial Anemia in Western Kenya. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 77, 23-28.
[20]  Abdullah, S., Adazu, K., Masanja, H., Diallo, D., Hodgson, A., Ilboudo-Sanogo, E. and Binka, F.N. (2007) Patterns of Age-Specific Mortality in Children in Endemic Areas of Sub- Saharan Africa. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 77, 99-105.
[21]  Okiro, E.A., Al-Taiar, A., Reyburn, H., Idro, R., Berkley, J.A. and Snow, R.W. (2009) Age Patterns of Severe Paediatric Malaria and Their Relationship to Plasmodium falciparum Transmission Intensity. Malaria Journal, 8, 1.
[22]  Polage, C.R., Bedu-Addo, G., Owusu-Ofori, A., Frimpong, E., Lloyd, W., Zurcher, E. and Petti, C.A. (2006) Laboratory Use in Ghana: Physician Perception and Practice. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 75, 526-531.
[23]  Chandler, C.I., Jones, C., Boniface, G., Juma, K., Reyburn, H. and Whitty, C.J. (2008) Guidelines and Mindlines: Why Do Clinical Staff Over-Diagnose Malaria in Tanzania? A Qualitative Study. Malaria Journal, 7, 1.
[24]  Thiam, S., Thior, M., Faye, B., Ndiop, M., Diouf, M.L., Diouf, M.B. and Lee, E. (2011) Major Reduction in Anti-Malarial Drug Consumption in Senegal after Nation-Wide Introduction of Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Tests. PloS One, 6, e18419.


comments powered by Disqus

Contact Us


微信:OALib Journal