In this study, we carry out an assessment of the impact of urbanization on
Butare, southern Rwanda and evaluate its effect on the hydrological process at
the Migina catchment. We used data from the meteorological stations of the
Migina catchment, land-use maps of the region (obtained in 1974 and 2010) and
GIS technology in order to analyse hydrological fluctuations in Migina
catchment and the expansion of Butare town. We observed that, between the two
hydrological years (1974 and 2010) water runoff increased by over 3.5% with
increasing flood risks. Furthermore, evapotranspiration and groundwater level
have decreased by about 3% and 0.5% leading to water scarcity. Research on
urban planning is necessary in order to improve on water resources management
and reduce the effects of urbanization on water resources such as in the Migina
Cite this paper
Gatwaza, O. C. , Cao, X. and Beckline, M. (2016). Impact of Urbanization on the Hydrological Cycle of Migina Catchment, Rwanda. Open Access Library Journal, 3, e2830. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1102830.
Munyaneza, O., Mukubwa, A., Maskey, S.,
Wenninger, J. and Uhlenbrook, S. (2013) Assessment of Surface Water Resources
Availability Using Catchment Modeling and the Results of Tracer Studies in the Meso-Scale
Migina Catchment, Rwanda. Hydrology and
Earth System Sciences Discussions, 10, 15375-15408. http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/hessd-10-15375-2013
Mukete, B. and Sun, Y. (2014) Assessing the Effectiveness of Urban
Nature Reserves on Biodiversity Conservation. Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences, 2, 130-134. http://dx.doi.org/10.12691/aees-2-6-1
Mugabe, T., Chitata, T., Kashaigili, J.,
and Nyagumbo, I.
(2011) Modelling the Effect of Rainfall Variability, Land Use Change and Increased
Reservoir Abstraction on Surface Water Resources in Semi-Arid Southern
and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, 36, 1025-1032. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pce.2011.07.058
Munyaneza, O. (2008) Space-Time Patterns of Hydrological Processes
and Water Resources in Rwanda, with Special Focus on the Meso-Scale Migina Catchment.
PhD Research Proposal, UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education, Delft, The Netherlands.