All Title Author
Keywords Abstract

Sedimentology of Marl and Marly Limestone Sequence of Upper Cretaceous Kawagarh Formation from Northern Kalachitta Range, Attock Hazara Fold and Thrust Belt, Pakistan

DOI: 10.4236/ojg.2019.91001, PP. 1-14

Keywords: Attock Hazara Fold & Thrust Belt, Fauna, Kalachitta Range, Microfacies, Ramp

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib


Upper Cretaceous Kawagarh Formation is well exposed in the Attock Hazara Fold and Thrust Belt (AHFTB) and shows significant lateral and vertical variations in lithology. The present work deals with the sedimentological studies of marl and marly limestone sequence of Kawagarh Formation exposed at the Bagh Neelab, Ghariala north and Sojhanda villages in Northern Kalachitta Range. Detailed petrographic studies of marly limestone and hard marl substrate show that planktons and oysters are the main skeletal constituents of studied samples and clay and detrital quartz mainly composed the non skeletal fraction. X-Ray diffraction analyses of selected marl samples confirm the petrographic data. On the basis of skeletal and non skeletal content, two microfacies—marl microfacies and Planktonic microfacies are constructed. The faunal content, their paleoecology and detrital content of microfacies suggest that marl and marly limestone sequence of Kawagarh Formation was deposited over the mid and outer ramp settings.


[1]  Butt, A.A. (1986) Cretaceous Biostratigraphic Synthesis of Pakistan. Acta Mineralogica Pakistanic, 2, 60-64.
[2]  Bellanca, A., Di Stefano, P. and Neri, R. (1995) Sedimentology and Isotope Geochemistry of Carnian Deep-Water Marl/Limestone Deposits from the Sicani Mountains, Sicily: Environmental Implications and Evidence for a Planktonic Source of Lime Mud. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 114, 111-129.
[3]  Tucker, M.E. (2009) Sedimentary Petrology: An Introduction to the Origin of Sedimentary Rocks. John Wiley & Sons, New York.
[4]  Pomar, L., Molina, J.M., Ruiz-Ortiz, P.A. and Vera, J.A. (2017) Storms in the Deep: Tempestite- and Beach-Like Deposits in Pelagic Sequences (Middle-Upper Jurassic, Subbetic, South of Spain). EGU General Assembly Conference Abstracts, 19, 3929.
[5]  Rehman, S.U., Riaz, M.A., Ahmed, M., Ullah, M.F., Kashif, M. and Rehman, F. (2017) Sedimentology of Pir Koh Formation Exposed at Dholi and Rakhi Gaj, Central Sulaiman Range, Pakistan. Journal of Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences, 11, 224-234.
[6]  Rehman, S.U. (2017) Sedimentology of Turonian-Maastrichtian Kawagarh Formation, Attock Hazara Fold and Thrust Belt, Northwestern Lesser Himalayas, Pakistan. Unpublished Ph.D Thesis, University of Sargodha, Pakistan.
[7]  Rehman, S.U., Mehmood, K., Ahsan, N. and Shah, M.M. (2016) Microfacies and Depositional Environments of Upper Cretaceous Kawagarh Formation from Chinali and Thoba Section, Northeastern Hazara Basin Lesser Himalayas, Pakistan. Journal of Himalayan Earth Sciences, 49, 1-16.
[8]  Shah, S.M.I (2009) Stratigraphy of Pakistan: Geol. Surv. Pakistan, Quetta No. 22.
[9]  Qureshi, M.K.A., Ghazi, S., Butt, A.A., Ahmad, N., Dasti, N. and Masood, K.R. (2004) Biostratigraphy and Sedimentology of the Upper Cretaceous Kawagarh Formation, Kala Chitta Range, Lesser Himalayas, Pakistan. Geological Bulletin of the Punjab University, 39, 37-46.
[10]  Rehman, S.U. (2009) Microfacies and Depositional Environments of Kawagarh Formation Exposed at Chinali and Khariala, Northwest Lesser Himalayas, Pakistan. Unpublished M. Phil Thesis, Punjab University, Lahore.
[11]  Ahsan, N. and Chaudhry, M.N. (2008) Geology of Hettangian to Middle Eocene Rocks of Hazara and Kashmir Basins, Northwest Lesser Himalayas, Pakistan. Geological Bulletin of Punjab University, 43, 131-152.
[12]  Latif, M.A. (1970) Explanatory Notes on the Geology of Southern Hazara, to Accompany the Revised Geological Map. Jahrbuch der Geologischen Bundesanstalt, Sonderband, 15, 5-20.
[13]  Shah, S.M.I (1977) Stratigraphy of Pakistan: Geol. Surv. Pakistan, Quetta, No. 12.
[14]  Calkins, J.A., Offield, T.W., Abdullah, T.S.K.M. and Ali, S.T. (1975) Geology of the Southern Himalaya in Hazara, Pakistan and Adjacent Areas. USGS Prof. Paper 716-c.
[15]  Yeats, R.S. and Hussain, A. (1987) Timing of Structural Events in the Himalayan Foothills of Northwestern Pakistan. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 99, 161-176.<161:TOSEIT>2.0.CO;2
[16]  Powell, C.M. (1979) A Speculative Tectonic History of Pakistan and Surroundings: Some Constraints from the Indian Ocean. Geodynamics of Pakistan, 13, 5-24.
[17]  Yeats, R.S. and Lawrence, R.D. (1984) Tectonics of Himalayan Thrust Belt in Northern Pakistan. In: Haq, B.U. and Milliman, J., Eds., Marine Geology and Oceanography of the Arabian Sea and Coastal Pakistan, Van Nostrant Reinhold Co., New York, 177-198.
[18]  Burg, J.-P., Célérier, B., Chaudhry, M.N., Ghazanfar, M., Gnehm, F. and Schnellmann, M. (2005) Fault Analysis and Paleostress Evolution in Large Strain Regions: Methodological and Geological Discussion of the Southeastern Himalayan Fold-and-Thrust Belt in Pakistan. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 24, 445-467.
[19]  Aitchison, J.C., Ali, J.R. and Davis, A.M. (2007) When and Where Did India and Asia Collide? Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 112, 1-19.
[20]  Khan, S.D., Walker, D.J., Hall, S.A., Burke, K.C., Shah, M.T. and Stockli, L. (2009) Did the Kohistan-Ladakh Island Arc Collide First with India? Geological Society of America Bulletin, 121, 366-384.
[21]  Chaudhry, M.N., Ghazanfar, M., Ramsay, J.G., Spencer, D.A. and Qayyumm, M. (1994) Northwest Himalaya—A Tectonic Subdivision. Geology in South Asia-1: Proceeding of First South Asia Geological Congress, Islamabad, 23-27 February 1992, 175-184.
[22]  McDoughall, J.W., Hussain, A. and Yeats, R.S. (1993) The Main Boundary Thrust and Propogation of the Deformation into the Foreland Fore and Thrust Belt in the Northern Pakistan near the Indus River. Tectonics of Western Himalaya. Geol. Soc. America, Special Publication 74, 581-588.
[23]  Qureshi, K.A. and Ahmad, M. (2001) Geological Map of Kalachitta Range, Northern Punjab, Pakistan. Geol. Surv. Pakistan, Quetta.
[24]  Fatmi, A. (1969) Dimorphism in Some Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous Ammonites from West Pakistan. Geonews, 1, 6-13.
[25]  Fatmi, A.N. (1977) Neocomian Ammonites from Northern Areas of Pakistan. British Museum (Natural History).
[26]  Jaswal, T.M., Lillie, R.J. and Lawrence, R.D. (1997) Structural Evolution of Northern Potwar Deformed Zone, Pakistan. AAPG, 81, 308-352.
[27]  Flügel, E. (2004) Microfacies Data: Fabrics Microfacies of Carbonate Rocks. Springer, Berlin.
[28]  Dickson, J. (1965) A Modified Staining Technique for Carbonates in Thin Section. Nature, 205, 4971-4979.
[29]  Dunham, R.J. (1962) Classification of Carbonate Rocks According to Depositional Textures.
[30]  Dodd, J.R. and Stanton, R.J. (1990) Paleoecology: Concepts and Applications. John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken.
[31]  Reading, H.G. (2009) Sedimentary Environments: Processes, Facies and Stratigraphy. John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken.
[32]  Ahsan, N. (2008) Facies Modeling, Depositional and Diagenetic Environments of Kawagarh Formation, Hazara Basin, Pakistan. Unpublished PhD Thesis, Punjab University, Lahore.
[33]  Postuma, J.A. (1971) Manual of Planktonic Foraminifera. Elsevier Publishing Company, New York.
[34]  McDaniel, L., Houchin, L., Williamson, S. and Paul, J. (2002) Plankton Blooms: Lysogeny in Marine Synechococcus. Nature, 415, 496-496.
[35]  Berger, W.H. (1970) Planktonic Foraminifera: Differential Production and Expatriation off Baja California. Limnology and Oceanography, 15, 183-204.
[36]  Tucker, M.E. and Wright, V.P. (1990) Carbonate Mineralogy and Chemistry. Carbonate Sedimentology, 284-313.
[37]  Logan, B.W., Bass, M.N. and McBirney, A.R. (1969) Carbonate Sediments and Reefs, Yucatan Shelf, Mexico. American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Mmoirs, 11.
[38]  Hart, M.B., Callapez, P.M., Fisher, J.K., Hannant, K., Monteiro, J.F., Price, G.D. and Watkinson, M.P. (2005) Micropalaeontology and Stratigraphy of the Cenomanian/Turonian Boundary in the Lusitanian Basin, Portugal. Journal of Iberian Geology, 31, 311-326.
[39]  Frank, R., Buchbinder, B. and Benjamini, C. (2010) The Mid-Cretaceous Carbonate System of Northern Israel: Facies Evolution, Tectono-Sedimentary Configuration and Global Control on the Central Levant Margin of the Arabian Plate. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 341, 133-169.
[40]  Hart, M.B. (2012) Geodiversity, Palaeodiversity or Biodiversity: Where Is the Place of Palaeobiology and an Understanding of Taphonomy? Proceedings of the Geologists Association, 123, 551-555.
[41]  Boggs, S. (2009) Petrology of Sedimentary Rocks. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
[42]  Stanley, S.M. (1977) Trends, Rates, and Patterns of Evolution in the Bivalvia. Developments in Palaeontology and Stratigraphy, 5, 209-250.
[43]  Qureshi, M.K.A., Masood, K.R., Ghazi, S. and Butt, A.A. (2006) Lithofacies Analysis of the Lower Cretaceous Lumshiwal Formation, Kala Chitta Range, Northern Pakistan. Geological Bulletin of Punjab University, 41, 1-19.
[44]  Salazar Soto, C.A. (2012) The Jurassic-Cretaceous Boundary (Tithonian Hauterivian) in the Andean Basin of Central Chile: Ammonites, Bio- and Sequence Stratigraphy and Palaeobiogeography. Unpublished PhD Thesis, Der Rupecht-Karls-Universitat Heidelberg, Chile.
[45]  Ahr, W.M. (1989) Sedimentary and Tectonic Controls on the Development of an Early Mississippian Carbonate Ramp, Sacramento Mountains Area, New Mexico.
[46]  Burchette, T. and Wright, V. (1992) Carbonate Ramp Depositional Systems. Sedimentary Geology, 79, 3-57.
[47]  Rey, J. (1997) A Liassic Isolated Platform Controlled by Tectonics: South Iberian Margin, Southeast Spain. Geological Magazine, 134, 235-247.
[48]  Pomar, L. (2001) Types of Carbonate Platforms: A Genetic Approach. Basin Research, 13, 313-334.
[49]  Ahsan, N., Rehman, S.U. and Shah, M.M. (2015) Kawagarh Formation (Turonian to Lower Maastrichtian)—A Homoclinal Ramp Deposit in Hazara Basin on Northern Margin of the Indian Plate. 15th Bathurst Meeting, University of Edenburgh, England, 13-16 July 2015.
[50]  Wilson, J.L. (2012) Carbonate Facies in Geologic History. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
[51]  Wright, V. (1986) Facies Sequences on a Carbonate Ramp: The Carboniferous Limestone of South Wales. Sedimentology, 33, 221-241.
[52]  Haq, B.U., Hardenbol, J. and Vail, P.R. (1988) Mesozoic and Cenozoic Chronostratigraphy and Cycles of Sea Level Change. In: Wilgus, C.K., Hastings, B.S., Kendall, C.G.St.C., et al., Eds., Sea-Level Changes: An Integrated Approach, SEPM Special Publication 42, SEPM, Tulsa, 7-108.


comments powered by Disqus

Contact Us


微信:OALib Journal