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Stratigraphy and Structure of Dhamtaur Area, District Abbottabad, Eastern Hazara, Pakistan  [PDF]
Shamim Akhtar, Yasin Rahim, Bin Hu, Hinyuen Tsang, Khawaja Muhammad Ibrar, Muhammad Fahad Ullah, Saleh Ibrahim Bute
Open Journal of Geology (OJG) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ojg.2019.91005
Abstract: Pre-Cambrian to Paleocene age sedimentary rocks predominantly characterize the fold and thrust belt of eastern Hazara division. The Hazara Slate Formation is the oldest rock unit which represents the Precambrian sequence. The Permian and Triassic sequences are missing. The Jurassic sequence comprises Samana Suk Formation whereas the Cretaceous exposed is Chichali and Lumshiwal formations. The Eocene sequence consists of Nammal and Sakessar formations. The structural fabric of the area is mainly attributed to a series of northwest trending parallel to en echelon anticlines and synclines. Most of these folds are found to be asymmetric and are Northwest facing. Several thrust faults verging both to the north have been mapped that generally dissect the forelimbs of the anticlinal structures. But the following study going to be focus on surface structural features as well as subsurface projections of folds and faults. Study of such structural features has get prime importance in economic geology such as petroleum geology, mining geology and engineering geology. In our study area subsurface projection of folds and faults along the structural transects of the area suggests that these structures have formed as a result of shortening associated with ramping from a regional basal decollement. All the structures clearly demonstrate that the eastern Hazara area has been subjected to compressional deformation/stresses oriented northeast southwest. The repetition of rock units indicates, folding in the area and thrusting of Pre-Cambrian Hazara Formation over younger Paleocene Lockhart Formation, evidence of thrust fault. There are unconformable contacts between Hazara and Samana Suk, Chichali and Lumshiwal, Kawagarh and Hangu and Lockhart formations indicate fluctuation in the environment of deposition. The Bagnotar Fault, Dhamtaur syncline and Thai anticline are the major structural features identified and reported in the study area.
SUBCLINICAL MASTITIS IN BUFFALOES IN ATTOCK DISTRICT OF PUNJAB (PAKISTAN)  [PDF]
H. A. Bachaya, Z. Iqbal1, G. Muhammad2, A. Yousaf2 and H. M. Ali3
Pakistan Veterinary Journal , 2005,
Abstract: Mastitis is the most costly disease of dairy industry throughout the world. Sub-clinical mastitis is not observed by the farmers but results in hidden losses in terms of production. The present study was conducted to determine the quarter wise and animal wise prevalence of sub-clinical mastitis in buffaloes in Attock district of Punjab, Pakistan. Milk samples were collected from apparently mastitis free 1200 quarters of 300 buffaloes. The samples were subjected to Surf Field Mastitis Test (SFMT). The overall quarter wise prevalence was 58.75 percent, while animal wise prevalence was 77.98 percent. The maximum quarter wise prevalence was found to be 16.66 percent in Tehsil Jand, followed by 13.33, 11.67 and 13.33 percent in the tehsils Attock, Pindighaib, and Fateh Jang, respectively. The maximum animal wise prevalence was 82.61 percent in Tehsil Pindighaib, followed by 73.33, 80.00 and 76.00 percent in the tehsils Attock, Jand and Fateh Jang, respectively.
Ethnomedicinal Studies of Kala Chitta Hills of District Attock, Pakistan  [PDF]
Tariq Mahmood,Mir Ajab Khan,Jamil Ahmad,Mushtaq Ahmad
Asian Journal of Plant Sciences , 2004,
Abstract: The present study was carried out to assess, record and report the ethnobotanical potential of the Kala Chitta Hills (salt range) of District Attock. Results of the present investigation were based on medicinally important 40 species (21 families). These plant species has other benefits too along with their major utilities like apiculture, sericulture, food and fruits. The Kala Chitta Hills of the Salt Range are very unique. Due to increase in population masses, demands of people increases, causing great pressure on the products of the area. This continuous pressure for last few decades has disastrously damaged the natural characteristic ecosystem of the area. The region is very rich in having medicinal plants. To understand the indigenous knowledge of the local people through ethnomedicinal study is very important for creating awareness among them regarding sustainable natural resource management. About 100 informants including local people, hakims and medicinal businessmen were interviewed for collection of ethnomedicinal data through the questionnaire. Results were compiled, issues were discussed, conclusion was made and recommendations are suggested for the future.
Formulation of single super phosphate fertilizer from rock phosphate of Hazara, Pakistan
Matiullah Khan,Shahid Ahmad,Muhammad Sharif,Motsim Billah and Muhammad Aslam
Soil & Environment , 2012,
Abstract: Phosphorus deficiency is wide spread in soils of Pakistan. It is imperative to explore the potential and economics of indigenous Hazara rock phosphate for preparation of single super phosphate fertilizer. For the subject study rock phosphate was collected from Hazara area ground at 160 mesh level with 26% total P2O5 content for manual preparation of single super phosphate fertilizer. The rock phosphate was treated with various concentrations of sulfuric acid (98.9%, diluted or pure) in the field. The treatments comprised of 20 and 35% pure acid and diluted with acid-water ratios of 1:5, 1:2, 1:1 and 2:1 v/v for acidulation at the rate of 60 liters 100 kg-1 rock phosphate. The amount was prior calculated in the laboratory for complete wetting of rock phosphate. A quantity of 150 kg rock phosphate was taken as treatment. The respective amount of acid was applied with the spray pump of stainless steel or poured with bucket. After proper processing, chemical analysis of the products showed a range of available P2O5 content from 9.56 to 19.24% depending upon the amount of acid and its dilution. The results reveal at that 1:1 dilutions gave the highest P2O5 content (19.24%), lowest free acid (6 %) and 32% weight increase. The application of acid beyond or below this combination either pure or diluted gave hygroscopic product and higher free acids. The cost incurred upon the manual processing was almost half the prevailing rates in the market. These results lead to conclude that application of sulfuric acid at the rate of 60 liters 100 kg-1 with the dilution of 50% (v/v) can yield better kind of SSP from Hazara rock phosphate at lower prices.
Inhibition of Hazara nairovirus replication by small interfering RNAs and their combination with ribavirin
Olivier Flusin, Solenne Vigne, Christophe N Peyrefitte, Michèle Bouloy, Jean-Marc Crance, Frédéric Iseni
Virology Journal , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1743-422x-8-249
Abstract: Chemically synthesized siRNAs were designed to target the mRNA produced by the three genomic segments. We first demonstrated that the siRNAs targeting the NP mRNA displayed a stronger antiviral effect than those complementary to the L and M transcripts in A549 cells. We further characterized the two most efficient siRNAs showing, that the induced inhibition is specific and associated with a decrease in NP synthesis during HAZV infection. Furthermore, both siRNAs depicted an antiviral activity when used before and after HAZV infection. We next showed that HAZV was sensitive to ribavirin which is also known to inhibit CCHFV. Finally, we demonstrated the additive or synergistic antiviral effect of siRNAs used in combination with ribavirin.Our study highlights the interest of using RNAi (alone or in combination with ribavirin) to treat nairovirus infection. This approach has to be considered for the development of future antiviral compounds targeting CCHFV, the most pathogenic nairovirus.Hazara virus (HAZV) is a member of the genus Nairovirus of the family Bunyaviridae which also includes Orthobunyavirus, Hantavirus, Phlebovirus and Tospovirus. Nairovirus comprises 34 tick-borne viruses classified into seven serogroups. The main representative serogroups are the Nairobi sheep disease group containing Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV) and Dugbe virus and the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) group including HAZV and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) [1,2]. While NSDV induces acute hemorrhagic gastroenteritis in sheep and goats, CCHFV is responsible of severe hemorrhagic fever in humans associated with elevated levels of mortality (up to 50%) [1,3]. Due to its high pathogenicity for humans and because of the lack of therapeutics, CCHFV must be handled in BSL4 (biosafety level 4) laboratory [1]. Widely distributed throughout Eastern Europe, Asia and Africa, CCHFV represents a major public health problem [4,5] and is now considered as an emerging disease [
Biology and distribution of butterfly fauna of Hazara University, Garden Campus, Mansehra, Pakistan  [PDF]
Farzana Perveen, Fatima Fazal
Open Journal of Animal Sciences (OJAS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojas.2013.32A004
Abstract: The butterflies are beautiful creature of nature with great economic importance as pollinator as well as bio-indicator of environments. The present survey was conducted to determine the biology and distribution of butterfly fauna of Hazara University, Garden Campus, Mansehra, Pakistan during March-June 2012. The study area was divided into 3 quadrates, i.e., residential area, administration area and main campus. A total of 170 specimens were collected, 10 species were identified belonging to 3 different families and falling in 8 genera. The species were identified. The painted lady, Cynthia cardui (Linnaeus); blue pansy, Junonia orithya Linnaeus; and plain tiger, Danaus chrysippus (Linnaeus) were belonging to family Nymphalidae. The lime butterfly, Papilio demoleus Linnaeus and com-mon mormon, P. polytes Linnaeus were belonging to family Papilionidae. The dark clouded yellow, Colias croceus (Geoffroy); common grass yellow, Eumera hecab (Linnaeus); Murree green-veined white, Pieris ajaka Moore; green-veined white, P. napi (Linnaeus) and Bath white, Pontia daplidice (Linnaeus) were belonging to family Pieridae. The body sizes of E. hecabe and J. orithya were minimum, i.e.
Biology and distribution of butterfly fauna of Hazara University, Garden Campus, Mansehra, Pakistan  [PDF]
Farzana Perveen, Fatima Fazal
Open Journal of Animal Sciences (OJAS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojas.2013.32A004
Abstract:

The butterflies are beautiful creature of nature with great economic importance as pollinator as well as bio-indicator of environments. The present survey was conducted to determine the biology and distribution of butterfly fauna of Hazara University, Garden Campus, Mansehra, Pakistan during March-June 2012. The study area was divided into 3 quadrates, i.e., residential area, administration area and main campus. A total of 170 specimens were collected, 10 species were identified belonging to 3 different families and falling in 8 genera. The species were identified. The painted lady, Cynthia cardui (Linnaeus); blue pansy, Junonia orithya Linnaeus; and plain tiger, Danaus chrysippus (Linnaeus) were belonging to family Nymphalidae. The lime butterfly, Papilio demoleus Linnaeus and common mormon, P. polytes Linnaeus were belonging to family Papilionidae. The dark clouded yellow, Colias croceus (Geoffroy); common grass yellow, Eumera hecab (Linnaeus); Murree green-veined white, Pieris ajaka Moore; green-veined white, P. napi (Linnaeus) and Bath white, Pontia daplidice (Linnaeus) were belonging to family

Resettlement Experiences of Afghan Hazara Female Adolescents: A Case Study from Melbourne, Australia  [PDF]
Nida Iqbal,Andrew Joyce,Alana Russo,Jaya Earnest
International Journal of Population Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/868230
Abstract: Young people from refugee backgrounds face a number of challenges in adjusting to life in a new country. Recently, there have been more studies documenting some of these challenges and experiences, and offering recommendations for the health and education sector to appropriately respond to their needs. This study sought to investigate some of the experiences and challenges faced by female Afghan Hazara refugee adolescents as a precursor to program development occurring within a community health service in the outer southeastern suburbs of Melbourne, Australia. This paper reports on a cross-sectional participatory qualitative research study undertaken with young Afghan female adolescents aged 14–17 years of Hazara ethnicity. The results document some of the key contested gender and cultural challenges facing these young women, their aspirations for their lives in Australia, and how this research has informed community health practice. 1. Introduction Individuals from Culturally and Linguistically Diverse (CALD) backgrounds confront a variety of unique problems when adjusting and resettling to life in a new country. For individuals from refugee backgrounds, difficulties associated with language and cultural differences are frequently compounded by prior experiences of discrimination, stigma, human right violation, and trauma which potentially exacerbate mental health problems. Research conducted with refugee women in South Australia indicated that transitional experiences upon arrival in Australia often did not meet their expectations. Whilst coming to Australia presented the chance of survival, a variety of unexpected challenges contributed towards a sense of hopelessness, often resulting in low self-esteem and depression [1]. Young people from refugee backgrounds in particular face a number of resettlement challenges, and while burgeoning research into how this process unfolds for refugee health is emerging globally [2] there is little information about this transition for Afghan female youth. This study addresses this gap focusing on refugee female adolescents from the Hazara ethnic background. 2. Literature Review A qualitative study of the social and emotional wellbeing of 123 young people from CALD backgrounds living in Queensland, South Australia and Western Australia included 76 people from refugee backgrounds [3]. The interview data of the participants from refugee backgrounds was analysed separately to the other participants, allowing specific exploration of the unique emotional and social issues arising due to the compounding experience of
Field Evaluation of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in Wheat-Maize Cropping System in Hazara Division of North West Frontier Province  [PDF]
M. Sharif,M.S. Sarir,Nasrullah
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2006,
Abstract: Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are of considerable interest because of their ability to form symbiotic associations with 85% plants and their potential to use as a biofertilizer. Rhizosphere soil and roots samples of wheat and maize were collected from marginal and fertile soils of Hazara division from soil series extensively use for the production of wheat and maize crops. Physicochemical characteristics of the soil under investigations were determined. AM fungal spores were isolated from soil, identified and their infections rates in the roots were determined. Data indicated that soil pH values of Hazara division ranged from 6.38 to 7.66, soil organic matter content ranged from 1.20 to 1.97% and lime from 1.5 to 11.5%. Maximum numbers of AM fungal white spores were found in Battagram and Abbottabad, brown spores in Chamba and black spores in Abbottabad and Chamba soil series in fertile soil whereas in marginal soil, high numbers of white spores were found in Dedal, Battagram and Abbottabad, brown spores in Dedal and Mansehra and black spores in Chamba, Jaba and Haripur soil series of this area. In fertile soil, 8 to 43% AM fungal infection rates were noted in roots of wheat crop where as 44 to 56% infection rates were observed in marginal soil of this area. Results suggest that comparatively higher AM fungal spores and their root colonization in wheat and maize crops were observed in marginal soil than fertile soil with varied spores density and infections intensity from one site to another. More AM fungal spores density caused higher roots infection intensity in wheat and maize crops of the area and higher AM infections rates were observed in soil of around neutral pH values with low organic matter contents.
Comparative Characterization of the Ladybird Beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) from Hazara University, Garden Campus, Mansehra, Pakistan  [PDF]
Farzana Perveen, Anzela Khan, Hina Habib
Advances in Entomology (AE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ae.2014.22011
Abstract: The ladybird beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) have great economic importance as natural enemies. Three hundred individuals belonging to 6 genera and 7 species of the subfamily, Coccinellinae and the tribe, Coccinellini was collected during March-May, 2011 from 3 study sites of Hazara University, Garden Campus, Mansehra, Pakistan. They were reported maximum (83.3%) from residential area and minimum (8%) from administration area. All collected species have glabrous hair on their slightly elongated or rounded bright colored body. The seven-spotted ladybug, Coccinella septempunctata (Linnaeus) has maximum (average: 6.7 ± 0.77 cm; n = 15) and Adalia tetraspilota (Hope) has minimum (average: 4.2 ± 0.15 cm; n = 14) body length. Moreover, transverse ladybird, Coccinella transversalis (Fabricius) has maximum (average: 4.8 ± 0.35 cm; n = 10) and Oenopia sauzeti (Mulsant) (n = 9) or adonis ladybird, Hippodamia variegate (Goeze) (n = 10) has minimum (3.1 cm) body width. Except six-spotted zigzag ladybird, Menochilus sexmaculatus (Fabricius) (n = 12), all collected species have black head, varied but attractive and dark in color pronotum and elytra, black scutellum except in fifteen-spotted ladybird, Harmonia dimidiate (Fabricius) (n = 10) which was brownish. The ventral side of body of A. tetraspilota was dark brown, however, C. septempunctata, C. transversalis, H. variegate and O. sauzeti were black; moreover, H. dimidiata was brownish-orange; further, M. sexmaculatus was brown. It is concluded that ladybird beetles of HU have great diversity. Their further studies have been needed for education and awareness.
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