All Title Author
Keywords Abstract


The Role of Biodiversity in Food Security and Nutrition: A Potato Cultivar Case Study

DOI: 10.4236/fns.2016.75039, PP. 371-382

Keywords: Potatoes, Solanum tuberosum, Nutrient Content, Biodiversity, Sub-Saharan, Food and Nutrition Security

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib

Abstract:

Biodiversity is considered a critical measure of the agricultural health of the world. Not only does increased biodiversity contribute to nutrient production and consumption, but it acts as a safeguard against food shortages due to pests and diseases by spreading the risk. Biodiversity can improve dietary diversity in such a way to ultimately contribute to improved food and nutrition security. As a result biodiversity is often highlighted in global discussions related to food and nutrition security. Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) are highly biodiverse food crops, with more than 4000 different cultivars grown globally. The crop is sometimes considered as part of the vegetable component of food baskets, but it is mainly added to meals as a starch because potatoes have a high starch content and are thus high in energy. However, significant differences in the nutritional content (including micronutrient composition) of different potato cultivars have been reported in many countries. It is therefore proposed that specific cultivars could potentially contribute more to critical nutrients required in the diet of countries at risk of malnutrition. The nutritional profile (macronutrients and minerals) of 11 potato cultivars cultivated in sub-Saharan Africa was determined and the contribution which these different potatoes could make to the diet, and consequently to food and nutrition security, is discussed. The results showed that significant differences are found in the nutritional content between the different cultivars. Significant differences (p < 0.001) were found in macronutrients such as protein and fat as well as micronutrients such as copper, phosphorus and potassium. These results indicate the potentially beneficial role which a biodiverse range of crops such as potatoes, could play in the food and nutrition security of developing countries.

References

[1]  FAO. FAO—Special Event: Food Security and Genetic Diversity.
http://www.fao.org/webcast/home/en/item/3153/icode/
[2]  Jones, A.D., et al. (2013) What Are We Assessing When We Measure Food Security? A Compendium and Review of Current Metrics. Advances in Nutrition, 4, 481-505.
[3]  Food and Agricultural Organisation. FAO Stats.
http://faostat3.fao.org/home/E
[4]  Schönfeldt, H.C., Kirsten, J.F. and McClachlan, M. (2014) Country Policy Analysis: Nutrition Impact of Agriculture and Food Systems South Africa. United Nations, Pretoria.
[5]  FAO, IFAD and WFP (2014) The State of Food Security in the World. FAO, Rome.
[6]  United Nations (2015) United Nations—Millennium Development Goals and Beyond.
http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/poverty.shtml
[7]  Meade, B. and Rosen, S. (2013) International Food Security Assessment, 2013-2023, GFA-24. US Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, US.
[8]  Bommarco, R., Kleijn, D. and Potts, S.G. (2013) Ecological Intensification: Harnessing Ecosystem Services for Food Security. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 28, 230-238.
[9]  Tanuminhardjo, S.A., et al. (2007) Poverty, Obesity, and Malnutrition: An International Perspective Recognizing the Paradox. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 107, 1966-1972.
[10]  Lear, S.A., et al. (2014) The Association between Ownership of Common Household Devices and Obesity and Diabetes in High, Middle and Low Income Countries. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 186, 258-266.
[11]  Shisana, O., et al. (2014) The South African National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey SANHANES-1. HSRC Press, Cape Town.
[12]  Khoury, C.K., et al. (2014) Increasing Homogeneity in Global Food Supplies and the Implications for Food Security. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111, 4001-4006.
[13]  Popkin, B.M., Adair, L.S. and Ng, S.W. (2012) Global Nutrition Transition and the Pandemic of Obesity in Developing Countries. Nutrition Reviews, 70, 3-21.
[14]  Smith, L.C. and Haddad, L. (2015) Reducing Child Undernutrition: Past Drivers and Priorities for the Post-MDG Era. World Development, 68, 180-204.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2014.11.014
[15]  Papathakis, P.C. and Pearson, K.E. (2012) Food Fortification Improves the Intake of All Fortified Nutrients, But Fails to Meet the Estimated Dietary Requirements for Vitamins A and B6, Riboflavin and Zinc, in Lactating South African Women. Public Health Nutrition, 15, 1810-1817.
[16]  Grubben, G., et al. (2014) Vegetables to Combat the Hidden Hunger in Africa. Chronica Horticulturae, 54, 24-32.
[17]  Muthayya, S., et al. (2013) The Global Hidden Hunger Indices and Maps: An Advocacy Tool for Action. PloS One, 8, 67860.
[18]  McCormick, C.L., et al. (2014) Increasing Obesity in Treated Female HIV Patients from Sub-Saharan Africa: Potential Causes and Possible Targets for Intervention. Frontiers in Immunology, 5, 5-12.
[19]  Jaime, P.C., et al. (2013) Brazilian Obesity Prevention and Control Initiatives. Obesity Reviews, 14, 88-95.
[20]  Toledo, A. and Burlingame, B. (2006) Biodiversity and Nutrition: A Common Path toward Global Food Security and Sustainable Development. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 19, 477-483.
[21]  SANBI. 2015. [Online]
http://www.sanbi.org/information
[22]  Potatoes South Africa. 2015. [Online]
http://www.potatoes.co.za/SiteResources/documents/Potato%20production%20in%2016%20regions.pdf
[23]  International Potato Center (2014) Research—Potato Highlands. [Online] http://cipotato.org/potato/
[24]  Drewnowski, A. and Specter, S.E. (2004) Poverty and Obesity: The Role of Energy Density and Energy Costs. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 79, 6-16.
[25]  Drewnowski, A. and Rehm, C.D. (2013) Vegetable Cost Metrics Show That Potatoes and Beans Provide Most Nutrients per Penny. PLoS ONE, 8, e63277.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063277
[26]  Potatoes South Africa (2014) Industry Report. [Online]
http://www.potatoes.co.za/industry-information.aspx
[27]  Food Composition Database (1999) South African Food Data System. [Online]
http://safoods.mrc.ac.za/foodcomp.htm
[28]  Denner, F. and Venter, S. (2011) Handleiding vir aartappelproduksie in Suid-Afrika. 2nd Edition, Potateos South Africa, Pretoria.
[29]  Nortje, P., Kleingeld, C. and Visser, A. (2000) Potato Breeding, Evaluation and Commercialisation in South Africa and Opportunities for Australia. Australian Potato Research, Adelaide.
[30]  Potatoes South Africa (2013) Industry Report. [Online]
http://www.potatoes.co.za/industry-information.aspx
[31]  Lin, T.M., Durance, T. and Scaman, C.H. (1998) Characterization of Vacuum Microwave, Air and Freeze Dried Carrot Slices. Food Research International, 31, 111-117.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0963-9969(98)00070-2
[32]  Giron, H.C. (1973) Perkin Elmer Atomic Spectrophotometer. Atomic Absorption Newsletter, 12, 28.
[33]  Gilani, G.S. and Nasim, A. (2007) Impact of Foods Nutritionally Enhanced through Biotechnology in Alleviating Malnutrition in Developing Countries. Journal of AOAC International, 90, 1440-1444.
[34]  Greenfield, H. and Southgate, D.A. (2003) Food Composition Data. FAO Publishing Management Service, Rome.
[35]  Payne, R.W., Murray, D.A., Harding, S.A., Baird, D.B. and Soutar, D.M. (2012) GenStat® for Windows TM Introduction. 15th Edition, VSN International, Hemel Hempstead.
[36]  Steyn, N., Nel, J. and Labadarios, D. (2009) Will Fortification of Staple Foods Make a Difference to the Dietary Intake of South African Children? South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 21, 22-26.
[37]  Parsa, S., Ccanto, R. and Rosenheim, J. (2011) Resource Concentration Dilutes a Key Pest in Indigenous Potato Agriculture. Ecological Applications, 21, 539-546.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/10-0393.1
[38]  Slavin, J.L. (2013) Carbohydrates, Dietary Fiber, and Resistant Starch in White Vegetables: Links to Health Outcomes. Advances in Nutrition, 4, 351-355.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3945/an.112.003491
[39]  King, J.C. and Slavin, J.L. (2013) White Potatoes, Human Health, and Dietary Guidance. Advances in Nutrition, 4, 393-401.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3945/an.112.003525
[40]  Department of Health (2014) Foodstuffs, Cosmetics and Disinfectant Act, 1972 (ACT No.54 of 1972) Regulations Relating to the Labelling and Advertising of Foods: Amendment (R429 of May 2014). Government Gazette, Pretoria.
[41]  Peksa, A., Kita, A., Kulakowska, K., Aniolowska, M., Hamouz, K. and Nems, A. (2013) The Quality of Protein of Coloured Fleshed Potatoes. Food Chemistry, 141, 2960-2966.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.05.125
[42]  Murniece, I., Karklina, D., Galoburda, R., Santare, D., Skrabule, I. and Costa, H.S. (2011) Nutritional Composition of Freshly Harvested and Stored Latvian Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Varieties Depending on Traditional Cooking Methods. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 24, 699-710.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2010.09.005
[43]  Jansky, S.H. and Fajardo, D.A. (2014) Tuber Starch Amylose Content Is Associated with Cold-Induced Sweetening in Potato. Food Science & Nutrition, 2, 628-633.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.137
[44]  Abbas, G., Frooq, K., Hafiz, I.A., Hussain, A., Abbasi, N.A. and Shabbir, G. (2011) Assessment of Processing and Nutritional Quality of Potato Genotypes in Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Science, 48, 169-175.
[45]  Jansen, G., Flamme, W., Schüler, K. and Vandrey, M. (2001) Tuber and Starch Quality of Wild and Cultivated Potato Species and Cultivars. Potato Research, 44, 137-146.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02410100
[46]  Schönfeldt, H.C. and Gibson Hall, N. (2012) Dietary Protein Quality and Malnutrition in Africa. British Journal of Nutrition, 108, 69-76.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114512002553
[47]  Luis, G., Rubio, C., González-Weller, D., Gutiérrez, A.J., Revert, C. and Hardisson, A. (2011) Comparative Study of the Mineral Composition of Several Varieties of Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) from Different Countries Cultivated in Canary Islands (Spain). International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 46, 774-780.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.2011.02556.x
[48]  Steyn, N.P., Labadarios, D. and Nel, J.H. (2011) Factors Which Influence the Consumption of Street Foods and Fast Foods in South Africa—A National Survey. Nutrition Journal, 10, 104-114.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-2891-10-104
[49]  Sazawal, S., Dhingra, P., Dhingra, U., Gupta, S., Iyengar, V., Menon, V.P., Sarkar, A. and Black, R.E. (2014) Compliance with Home-Based Fortification Strategies for Delivery of Iron and Zinc: Its Effect on Haematological and Growth Markers among 6-24 Months Old Children in North India. Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition, 32, 217-226.
[50]  Weichselbaum, E. (2010) REVIEW: An Overview of the Role of Potatoes in the UK Diet. Nutrition Bulletin, 35, 195-206.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-3010.2010.01845.x
[51]  Brown, C.R., Haynes, K.G., Moore, M., Pavek, M.J., Hane, D.C., Love, S.L. and Novy, R.G. (2013) Stability and Broad-Sense Heritability of Mineral Content in Potato: Potassium and Phosphorus. American Journal of Potato Research, 90, 516-523.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12230-013-9323-2
[52]  Storey, M.L. and Anderson, P. (2013) White Potato Consumption Is Positively Associated with Potassium Intake. The FASEB Journal, 27, 1062-1100.
[53]  Food Standards Australia New Zealand (2014) NUTTAB. [Online]
http://www.foodstandards.gov.au/science/monitoringnutrients/nutrientables/nuttab/Pages/default.aspx
[54]  McGill, C.R., Kurilich, A.C. and Davingnon, J. (2013) The Role of Potatoes and Potato Components in Cardiometabolic Health: A Review. Annals of Medicine, 45, 467-473.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/07853890.2013.813633
[55]  Garcia-Garcia, E. and Totosaus, A. (2008) Low-Fat Sodium-Reduced Sausages: Effect of the Interaction between Locust Bean Gum, Potato Starch and κ-Carrageenan by a Mixture Design Approach. Meat Science, 78, 406-413.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2007.07.003
[56]  Flock, M.R. and Kris-Etherton, P.M. (2011) Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010: Implications for Cardiovascular Disease. Current Atherosclerosis Reports, 13, 499-507.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11883-011-0205-0
[57]  Steffen, L.M. (2014) Lower Levels of Sodium Intake and Reduced Cardiovascular Risk The Challenge to Achieve Lower Sodium Recommendations. Circulation, 129, 956-957.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.114.007964
[58]  Monteiro, A., Henriques, I. and Moreira, I. (2011) Critical Period for Weed Control in Potatoes in the Huambo Province (Angola). Planta Daninha, 29, 351-362.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0100-83582011000200013
[59]  Fernando, N. and Slater, T. (2010) State Government Victoria, Department of Environment and Primary Industry. [Online]
http://www.dpi.vic.gov.au/agriculture/horticulture/vegetables/potatoes/potatoes-factors-affecting-dry-matter
[60]  Thybo, A.K., Molgaard, J.P. and Kidmose, U. (2002) Effect of Different Organic Growing Conditions on Quality of Cooked Potatoes. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 82, 12-18.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.1009
[61]  South African Department of Environment and Primary Industries (2000) Agriculture—Potatoes. [Online]
http://www.dpi.vic.gov.au/agriculture/horticulture/vegetables/potatoes/potatoes-measurement-specific-gravity
[62]  Camire, M.E., Kubow, S. and Donnelly, D.J. (2009) Potatoes and Human Health. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 49, 823-840.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408390903041996
[63]  Palta, J.P. (1996) Role of Calcium in Plant Responses to Stresses: Linking Basic Research to the Solution of Practical Problems. HortScience, 31, 51-57.
[64]  Van der Waals, J.E., Korsten, L. and Slippers, B. (2004) Genetic Diversity among Alternaria solani Isolates from Potatoes in South Africa. Plant Disease, 88, 959-964.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS.2004.88.9.959
[65]  Dugo, G., La Pera, L., Lo Turcoa, V., Palmieri, R.M. and Saitta, M. (2005) Effect of Boiling and Peeling on Manganese Content of Some Vegetables Determined by Derivative Anodic Stripping Chronopotentiometry (DASCP). Food Chemistry, 93, 703-711.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.12.037
[66]  Zhao, Y.-X., Meng, M.-L., Hao, W.-S. and Sun, S.-Y. (2010) A Study on the Magnesium Absorption of Potatoes. Acta Agriculturae Boreali-Sinica, 25, 190-193.
[67]  United States Department of Agriculture. 2012. [Online]
http://www.ers.usda.gov/topics/crops/vegetables-pulses/potatoes.aspx#.U5GQgyh7yao
[68]  Dugo, G., La Pera, L., Lo Turcoa, V., Giuffrida, D. and Restuccia, S. (2004) Determination of Copper, Zinc, Selenium, Lead and Cadmium in Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) Using Potentiometric Stripping Methods. Food Additives and Contaminants, 21, 649-657.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02652030410001698698
[69]  Choi, M.K., Kang, M.H. and Kim, M.H. (2009) The Analysis of Copper, Selenium, and Molybdenum Contents in Frequently Consumed Foods and an Estimation of Their Daily Intake in Korean Adults. Biological Trace Element Research, 128, 104-117.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12011-008-8260-2
[70]  Moretti, C.L., Mattos, L.M., Calbo, A.G. and Sargent, S.A. (2010) Climate Changes and Potential Impacts on Postharvest Quality of Fruit and Vegetable Crops: A Review. Food Research International, 43, 1824-1832.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2009.10.013

Full-Text

comments powered by Disqus

Contact Us

service@oalib.com

QQ:3279437679

微信:OALib Journal