Apr 07, 2021Open AccessArticle
Water has historically been used by humans for several purposes, such as power generation, domestic use, and irrigation. However, water management in the Nile Basin and, overall, in Africa faces social, technical, economic, political, and environmental challenges. Energy consumption levels are directly proportional to economic growth and development. The Nile Basin nations have an estimated 140,000 megawatts (MW) of hydropower potential, but a small fraction is exploited except for Egypt. Mainly...
Jan 20, 2021Open AccessArticle
Growing water demand and water scarcity have turned into a prominent challenge to livelihood in several parts worldwide. Global warming, water pollution, population growth, urbanization, and poor management of water resources have aggravated the issue of the water crisis. Water scarcity is expected to affect socio-economic activities, food security, education, health, and intensity climate change, hereby has caught the attention of the public. The United Nations Sustainable Development Goal (SDG...
Nov 27, 2020Open AccessArticle
The use of water resources is ineffective although Turkey has insufficient freshwater resources. Dry farming is practiced in a large part of agricultural land. This land due to insufficient precipitation throughout the country is left to fallow once in two years. Agricultural drought is becoming a severe challenge for agriculture and food security, and it may also impact the wealth of farmers by agriculture income. So, it causes widespread concern among the rural population. There is a close rel...
Oct 30, 2020Open AccessArticle
In this paper, we discuss the assumptions, the balances, and the constitutive relationships in order to provide a set of tools for the mathematical modeling of a geothermal system. In particular, we present a model for pressure and saturation supposing that: 1) the geothermal fluid flows in a porous medium, 2) it is composed of pure water, 3) the simultaneous presence of the gaseous (vapor) and liquid phases occurs, and 4) the effects of capillarity action can be introduced.
Oct 29, 2020Open AccessArticle
When watersheds span multiple administrative jurisdictions, ensuring the equitable division of responsibility, conflict resolutions and information sharing are all needed to achieve ecological balance, economic development, and social security. Under socio-ecological conditions full of uncertainties, diverse participating groups and multiple perspectives on resource threats need to be involved. Adaptive governance as a theory refers to the structures and processes by which people can address suc...
Jul 14, 2020Open AccessArticle
In Ghana, using hand-dug wells whose quality has not been scientifically assessed is a common practice. All the hand-dug wells in Abura and its environs where this study took place have not been scientifically assessed; however, they are being used for domestic activities including drinking. In all, 128 water samples were collected from 20 hand-dug wells in the Abura community. Sixteen physical, chemical, and microbial parameters namely pH, turbidity, total suspended solids, conductivity, total ...
Jun 04, 2020Open AccessArticle
Boreholes are main sources of water for human use in the Rift Valley. However these boreholes have fluoride levels higher than the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended levels of 1.5 mg/l and consequently have raised serious health issues. This study sought to determine the relationship between borehole stratigraphy and fluoride levels in ground water in river Njoro catchment. This study adopted purposive longitudinal survey. The study adopted descriptive analysis of the borehole stratigra...
Apr 23, 2020Open AccessArticle
The crude oil industry in Nigeria remains a major source of revenue and foreign exchange. However, oil exploration and production activities have the potential of causing a lot of distortions in the environment, affecting the ecosystems and human life. The purpose of this study is to assess the physicochemical status of surface and groundwater in Sapele, Delta State, a region that has witnessed oil exploration and production activities. In carrying out this study, water samples were collected mo...
Feb 04, 2020Open AccessArticle
During the last three decades, the electrocoagulation (EC) process has known an exemplary renaissance in the field of water and wastewater treatment. Sev-eral researchers focused on applying this electrochemical technology in re-moving diverse pollutants such as pathogens and organic matters. During EC application, the hazards of formation of highly toxic disinfection by-products (DBPs) are more and more proved especially in water containing organic mat-ter and
Jan 10, 2020Open AccessArticle
Chlorine is largely used as a disinfectant in the water and wastewater treatment industries through the world despite the fact that is greatly poisonous for hu-man beings. Its toxicity is more extended to generating disinfection by-products during its microorganisms’ killing and action on organic matter present in water. More importantly, recent studies proved the potential impacts of disinfection on transmission of antibiotic res