the world has had a great economic progress during the second half of the 20th century, including the underdeveloped countries. we have been witnesses of the global integration of markets and economic structures. nevertheless, it has not been a uniform process. poverty exists everywhere. to reduce it, developing countries need to achieve a technological improvement, the domain and production of knowledge and invest on innovation. they must raise the educational levels with deep reforms in their system; the institutions either of top education, scientific and technological research, must fortify it in an integrated way, and create new programs that would transform the territorial organization within the countries and the whole region.