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La transición alimentaria y nutricional: Un reto en el siglo XXI

Keywords: epidemiologic transition, food and nutrition transition, obesity, malnutrition, diabetes mellitus type 2..

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abstract as income increases, an increase in overall food consumption occurs, also in total fat, saturated fat and refined foods .urbanization and mass media promote this behavior as well as socio cultural, economic and lifestyle changes such as sedentarism. obesity and insuline resistance prevalences increase and, eventually, diabetes mellitus type 2. in less industrialized countries, these changes are accelerated and underweight / overweight coexist. food/ nutrition transition is accompanied by the demographic and epidemiologic transitions (high prevalences of communicable diseases and malnutrition shifting towards high prevalences of chronic diseases). in venezuela, both mortality and fertility have decreased. in 1940, infectious diseases were most prevalent and heart disease was the third cause of death; in 2001, chronic diseases were most prevalent and heart disease was the first cause of death, followed by cancer and accidents. food transition started in the 1960?s: availability of processed foods such as precooked maize flour, vegetable oils, margerine and refined sugar increased while legumes, root vegetables, fruits, lard and butter decreased. secular trend was higher in weight than in height, yet upper strata children and adolescents were heavier and taller as compared to their lower strata and rural counterparts. low height- for-age predominates and, in several age groups, overweight doubled underweight; overweight and obesity in lower strata women was high. a review of public policies regarding food and nutrition is important, also the definition of strategies for the prevention of chronic diseases with a healthy and productive population as a final goal.

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