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Prevalence of Mastitis and Associated Risk Factors in Lactating Camels (Camelus Dromedarius) on Dairy Farms in Benadir Region, Somalia

DOI: 10.4236/ojvm.2024.146008, PP. 111-123

Keywords: Mastitis, Camel, Prevalence, Risk Factors, Somalia

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Abstract:

The study took a comprehensive approach to understanding mastitis in lactating camels, a disease that significantly impacts milk quantity and quality. This complex and multifactorial disease poses a significant challenge to dairy camel farming, particularly in Somalia. The study’s objective was to determine the prevalence of mastitis and the risk factors associated with it among lactating camels on dairy farms in Benadir, Somalia. To achieve this, a cross-sectional study was conducted from May to September 2022 in the Benadir region of Somalia. A total of 96 lactating camels underwent examination using the California Mastitis Test (CMT) to identify clinical and subclinical mastitis cases. Additionally, a questionnaire survey was conducted among 20 farm employees/owners to gather information on hygiene practices, parity, lactation stage, tick infestation, and the presence of udder/teat lesions. Data regarding parity and lactation stage were obtained through owner interviews. The data collected on specifically designed forms were recorded and entered into a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet for analysis using SPSS version 20 statistical software, ensuring a comprehensive and reliable analysis of the data. The study’s findings revealed a significant prevalence of camel mastitis, with 34.4% (33/96) of lactating camels affected and clinical and subclinical cases constituting 5.2% and 29.2%, respectively. Quarter-level prevalence was 46.3%, with clinical and subclinical mastitis at 4.7% and 41.6%, respectively. The study also identified significant associations (P < 0.05) among risk factors such as stage of lactation, parity, and age, indicating a higher susceptibility to mastitis in older camels during early lactation compared to those in late lactation and younger camels. These findings underscore the crucial role of inadequate hygienic conditions on camel farms and udder tick infestations in driving the elevated prevalence of mastitis, highlighting the need for improved management practices in dairy farming in Benadir, Somalia. Effective interventions, including improved management practices and extension services, are essential to reduce the burden of mastitis in dairy camels.

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