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High-Value Utilization of Water Hyacinth: Efficient Extraction of Nanofibrillated Cellulose and Nanofiber Crystals through TEMPO-Ultrasound Coupling Method

DOI: 10.12677/ije.2024.132035, PP. 262-273

Keywords: TEMPO超声偶联,水葫芦的高值化利用,高效化提取
TEMPO Ultrasonic Coupling
, High-Value Utilization of Water Hyacinth, Efficient Extraction

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本研究提出了一种高值化利用深度处理后含有重金属的水葫芦的方法。即利用TEMPO-超声偶联法从水葫芦的茎中提取纳米纤维素晶体(CNC)和纳米纤维素(CNF)。这种方法通过将TEMPO介导氧化和超声相结合,温和地分解了水葫芦纤维束,促使纤维素纤维分解成更小的片段,从而提高了CNC和CNF的产率。研究结果表明,TEMPO超声联合法制备的CNC产率为63%,其羧基含量为1.27 mmol/g,CNF的产率为31%,羧基含量为1.21 mmol/g。扫描电子显微镜(SEM)和傅立叶红外变换(FTIR),分析证实了非纤维素杂质的逐步去除。CNC的平均长度为214.4 nm,平均直径为2.72 nm,长径比约为78.8,而CNF的平均长度为437.8 nm,平均直径为5.7 nm,长径比为76.8。较高的长径比意味着CNC和CNF具有更出色的力学性能。X射线衍射(XRD)分析显示,制备的CNC和CNF的结晶度分别为87.1%和81.2%,这表明它们具有较高的刚性。通过热重分析(TGA),还测定了纤维的热稳定性。这些结果表明,CNC和CNF在增强聚合物基体材料方面具有巨大的潜力。这一研究方法为深度处理后水葫芦实现高值化利用提供了可行性和潜力。
This study proposes a method for high-value utilization of water hyacinth containing heavy metals after deep treatment. That is, the TEMPO-ultrasonic coupling method was used to extract nanocellulose crystals (CNC) and nanocellulose (CNF) from the stems of water hyacinth. This method gently decomposes water hyacinth fiber bundles by combining TEMPO-mediated oxidation and ultrasound, promoting the decomposition of cellulose fibers into smaller fragments, thereby improving the yield of CNC and CNF. Research results show that the yield of CNC prepared by TEMPO ultrasound combined method is 63%, and its carboxyl content is 1.27 mmol/g. The yield of CNF is 31%, and its carboxyl content is 1.21 mmol/g. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared transform (FTIR) analysis confirmed the progressive removal of non-cellulosic impurities. The average length of CNC is 214.4 nm, the average diameter is 2.72 nm, and the aspect ratio is about 78.8, while the average length of CNF is 437.8 nm, the average diameter is 5.7 nm, and the aspect ratio is 76.8. A higher aspect ratio means that CNC and CNF have better mechanical properties. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis shows that the crystallinity of the prepared CNC and CNF is 87.1% and 81.2%, respectively, which indicates that they have high rigidity. The thermal stability of the fibers was also determined by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). These results demonstrate that CNCs and CNFs have great potential in reinforcing polymer matrix materials. This research method provides feasibility and potential for high-value utilization of water hyacinth after deep treatment.


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