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中国短花针茅荒漠草原植被的地理分布及斑块特征
Geographical Distribution and Patch Characteristics of Vegetation in the Desert Grassland of Stipa breviflora in China

DOI: 10.12677/ije.2024.132033, PP. 248-254

Keywords: 短花针茅草原,斑块,地理分布,景观生态学
Stipa breviflora Grassland
, Plaques, Geographical Distribution, Landscape Ecology

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Abstract:

根据科学出版社2001年出版的《中国植被图集(1:1000000)》,利用地理信息系统软件(ArcGIS)进行矢量化处理,提取短花针茅荒漠草原植被的斑块信息,绘制短花针茅荒漠草原植被地理空间分布图,并以此为基础,对我国短花针茅荒漠草原植被群落的分布特点、群落的类型、及其斑块特征进行研究;结果显示:我国的短花针茅荒漠草原主要分布在内蒙古、新疆、青海、甘肃、陕西和宁夏地区;我国短花针茅荒漠草原植被总面积约为35335.34 km2,其中,甘肃分布面积最广,分布面积约为14758.82 km2,约占我国短花针茅荒漠植被总面积的41.77%;其次是内蒙古地区,分布面积约为10046.13 km2,占比约为28.43%;分布面积最小的是陕西省,分布面积为386.70 km2,占比约为1.09%。短花针茅荒漠草原的分布面积要远大于其他群系;短花针茅荒漠草原斑块数量多,面积变异系数大,破碎化严重。分析得出:高强度放牧是影响我国短花针茅荒漠草原群落斑块分布格局的主要因素。短花针茅的植被图斑主要特征是:大斑块数量较少,而小斑块数量众多,且斑块与斑块的面积差距显著,大多数斑块所处空间相距较远。
According to the “Chinese Vegetation Atlas (1:1000000)” published by Science Press in 2001, vector processing was carried out using Geographic Information System (ArcGIS) software to extract patch information of short flowered Stipa desert grassland vegetation. A geographic spatial distribution map of short flowered Stipa desert grassland vegetation was drawn, and based on this, the distribution characteristics, types, and patch characteristics of vegetation communities in China’s short flowered Stipa desert grassland were studied. The results show that the Short flowered Stipa Desert Grassland in China is mainly distributed in Inner Mongolia, Xinjiang, Qinghai, Gansu, Shaanxi, and Ningxia regions. The total vegetation area of the Short flowered Stipa desert grassland in China is about 35335.34 km2, among which Gansu has the widest distribution area, with a distribution area of about 14758.82 km2, accounting for 41.77% of the total vegetation area of the short flowered Stipa desert in China. Next is Inner Mongolia, with a distribution area of approximately 10046.13 km2, accounting for approximately 28.43%. The smallest distribution area is in Shaanxi Province, with a distribution area of 386.70 km2, accounting for approximately 1.09%. The distribution area of the Short flowered Stipa desert grassland is much larger than that of other formations; the desert grassland of Stipa breviflora has a large number of patches, a large coefficient of variation, and severe fragmentation. Analysis shows that high-intensity grazing is the main factor affecting the distribution pattern of patches in the short flowered Stipa desert grassland community in China. The main characteristics of vegetation patches in Short flowered Stipa are that there are fewer large patches, while there are many small patches, and the area difference between patches is significant. Most patches are located far apart in space.

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